A History of Indian Logic: Ancient, Mediaeval and Modern Schools

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A History of Indian Logic: Ancient, Mediaeval and Modern Schools
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My objective; in this volume, is to write the history of what is called Nyaya, one of the six schools into which orthodox philosophy in India is divided. The word 'Logic', although it is in common parlance held synonymous with Indian Nyaya, is not exactly identical to it. Logic covers some of the subjects of Nyaya as well as Vasesika and is not co-extensive with either.

The author has in this work clearly marked the principal stages of Indian logic in the vast period of about two thousand years beginning from 640 and has traced how from Anviksiki the science of debate Indian logic developed into the science of knowledge Pramanasastra and then into the science of dialectics Prakarana of Tarkasastra.

The treatment of the subject is both historical and critical. The author has traced some Greek influences on Indian logic. For instance, he has shown how the five-membered syllogism of Aristotle found its way through Alexandria Syria and other countries into Taxila and got amalgamated with the Nyaya doctrine of inference.

The book is one of the pioneering works on the subject. It has drawn on original sources exhaustively. Besides the preface introduction, foreword and table of contents, the work contains several appendices and indexes.



It pleased His Excellency the Earl of Ronaldshay, G.C.I.E., the Governor of Bengal, to utter these memorable words while presiding at the Convocation of the Calcutta University in the year 1918:- “That an Indian student should pass through a course of philosophy at an Indian University without ever hearing mention of, shall I say, Sankara, the thinker who, perhaps, his carried idealism further than any other thinker of any other age or country, or of the subtleties of the Nyaya system which has been handed down through immemorial ages and is to-day the pride and glory of the tools of Navadvipa, does, indeed, appear to me to be a profound anomaly.”

Words like these coming from one who is himself a keen and ardent student of Indian Philosophy and a scrupulous and sympathetic ruler, came upon me, who have the good fortune to belong to Navadvipa, “with double sway” and supplied the inspiration which sustained me in this my humble attempt to present a history of Indian Logic or Nyaya Darsana before the English-knowing public.

It was my revered preceptors Mahamahopadhyaya Mahesh Chandra Nyayaratna, C. I.E., Principal, Sanskrit-College, Calcutta, and Mahamahopadhyaya Jadunath Sarvabhauma of Navadvipa, who (the first by his lecture on Bhasaparicheda and Siddhanta-muktavali, and the second by his lectures on Kusumanjali and Atma-tattva-viveka) first awakened in me an interest in the study of Indian Logic. That was about the year 1892. Subsequently, I read Modern Logic, viz. Tattvacintamani and Sabda-sakti-prakasika under Pandit Bamacharan Nyayacharya and Raghunatha Siromani’s Didhiti under Pandit Jibanath Misra, both of Benares College.

I searched out and studied most of the books and manuscripts on the subject of Hindu Logic to be found in the Sanskrit College library and the Asiatic Society of Bengal and occasionally consulted works supplied by the Deccan College, Poona, and Benares Sanskrit College. I thus put myself in the way of acquiring some acquaintance with Indian Logic and from time to time published several books and articles on Nyaya.

With regard to Jaina Logic, I derived valuable help from my teacher, Sastra-visarada Jainacarya Vijayadharma Suri, Pandit Indravijaya Upedhyaya and occasionally from Pandit Haragovind Seth Nyayatirtha. I gathered Jaina books from various Jaina Societies and Publishing Houses such as those at Benares, Azimganj, Arrah, Bhavnagar, etc. I also used a large number of Jaina manuscripts, of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Deccan College, Poona, etc., besides those in the possession of the aforesaid Venerable Vijayadharma Suri.

As regards Buddhistic Logic, I could not get much help from Pali sources, because neither in the Buddhistic Scriptures introduced into Ceylon in 254 B.C by Mahendra, son of Asoka, nor in the Buddhistic books recorded in writing in 88 B.C. by Vatta-gamini, is there any trace of a systematic culture of Nyaya. Even during my visit to Ceylon in 1909 (Appendix K), I did not come across in that island any evidence of Nyaya-study. On this subject I have derived materials to some extent from Chinese, but, mostly from Tibetan sources. Professor Kimura occasionally helped me in dealing with Chinese materials. Concerning the Tibetan sources almost all the materials were derived from Bstan-hgyur some volumes whereof were lent to me by the India office through the courtesy of Dr. F. W. Thomas. Through the kindness of Lord Curzon, the then viceroy of India, I was enabled to retain temporarily for my use some other volumes of Bstan-hgyur brought down from Gyantes during the Tibet Mission of 1904. To secure further materials bearing on the subject of Buddhistic Logic I visited Labrang and Pamyangchi monasteries in June 1907 and October 1908, respectively (Appendices I and J), and came across a world of facts for observation and comment. Since the opening of increased intercourse between India and Tibet consequent upon the Tashi Lama’s visit to India in 1905 (of which an account is given in Appendix H), batches of Tibetan traders have been pouring into India and from them, four copies of, Bstan-hgyur have been obtained since 1911, of which one is with me, one in the Asiatic Society, Calcutta, one (a fragmentary copy) in the Sahitya-Parishad Library, and one in the Calcutta University Library.

In regard to the chapters on modern Logic, I occasionally consulted some scholars among whom Mahamahopadhyaya Pramatha Nath Tarkabhusana, Mahamahopadhaya Gurucharan Tarka-darsana-tirtha, Mahamahopadhyaya Lakshman Sastri, Mahamahopadhyaya Vindhyeswari and Pandit Jamini Nath Tarka-vagisa may be gratefully mentioned.

My thanks are due to Hon’ble Mr. W. W. Hornell, Director of Public Instruction, Bengal, who very kindly looked through the first batch of manuscripts and made many suggestions which have stood me in great stead in preparing the volume. I am also grateful to Rev. A. Johnstone, M.A., Principal, C.M.S. College, for having revised manuscripts as well as the proofs of the portion dealing with ancient Logic. Mr. F. J. Monahan, I.C.S., Commissioner, Presidency Division, looked through a few galleys and when he left for England, the work of revision was very kindly undertaken by Dr. W. S. Urquhart, of the Scottish Churches College, to whom I offer me thinks. My special thanks are due to Dr. H Stephen of Calcutta University for the interest and thoroughness with which he examined all the proofs of the present volume. The book however could not have seen the light nor assumed its present form were it not for the help of various kinds received from that Macenas of letters- I mean the Hon’ble Justice Sir Asutosh Mukherji, Sarasvati, whose name is inseparably associated with every form of educational work in Bengali, who has spent the best years of his life in effecting various improvements in the status of the Calcutta University, and who above anything else is the typical man of action-a great Karmayogin-unswerving in his aim and fixity of purpose, selfless in his devotion to work, pursuing it through life regardless of malediction or benediction, praise or blame.



My object, in this volume, is to write the history of what is called Nyaya, one of the six schools into which orthodox philosophy in India is divided. The word ‘logic,’ although it is in common parlance held synonymous with Indian Nyaya, is not exactly identical to it. Logic covers some of the subjects of Nyaya as well as Vaisesika and is not co-extensive with either.

Indian Logic has been differently defined in different ages but the definition generally accepted is the science which ascertains valid knowledge either by means of the six senses or by means of the five members of the syllogism; in other words, perception and inference are the subject matter of Logic.

In my anxiety to assign a proper place to Jaina and Buddhistic Logic, which played no inconsiderable part in the development of the science of reasoning in India, I have made a departure from the time-honoured classification of Indian Logic into Ancient and Modern and have added an intermediate stage-thus dividing it into three periods. Ancient (650 B.C.- 100 A.D.), Mediaeval (up to 1200 A.D.) and Modern (from 900 A.D.). The standard texts for each of these periods were Nyaya-Sutra by Aksapada, Pramana-samuccaya by Dignaga and Tattva cintamani by Gangesa Upadhyaya respectively. The wide popularity of these works is evidenced by the large numbers of commentaries that have been written on them, as mentioned below:-





l. Nyaya-sutra by Aksapada Gautama.


2. Nyaya-bhasya by Vatsyayana.
3. Nyaya-vartika by Udyotakara.
4. Nyaya-vartika-tatparya-tika by Vacaspati Misra.
5. Nyaya-vartika-tatparya-tika-parisuddhi by Udayanacarya.
6. Nyaya-nibandha-prakasa by Vardhamana.
7. Nyayalankara by Srikantha.
8. Nyaya-vrtti by Abhayatilaka Upadhyaya.
9. Nyaya-sutroddhara by Vacaspati Misra.
10. Nyaya-rahasya by Ramabhadra.
11. Nyaya-siddhanta-mala by Jayrama.
12. Nyaya-sutra-vrtti by Visvanatha Siddhantapancanana.
13. Nyaya-samksepa by Govinda Sanna.





1. Pramana-samuccaya by Dignaga.


2. Pramana-samuccaya-vrtti by Dignaga.
3. Pramana-vartika-karika by Dharmakirti.
4. Pramana-vartika-vrtti by Dharnakirti.
5. Pramana-vartika-panjika by Devendrabodhi.
6. Pramana-vartika-panjika-tika by Sakvabodhi.
7. Pramana-vartika-vrtti by Ravi Gupta.
8. Pramana-samuccaya-tika (Visalamalavati-nama) by Jinendra-bodhi.
> 9. Pramana-vartikalankara by Prajnakara Gupta.
10. Pramana-vartikalankara-tika by Jina
11. Pramana-vartikalankara by Yamari.
12. Pramana-vartika-tika by Sankarananda.





1. Tattva-cintamani by Gangesa.


2. Tattva-cintamani-prakasa by Vardhamana Upadhyaya.
3 Tattva-cintamani-aloka by Paksadhara Misra.
4 Tattva-cintamani-prakasa by Rucidatta.
5. Tattva-cintamani-mayukha by Sankara Misra.
6. Anumana-khanda-tika by Vacaspati Misra.
7. Tattva-cintamani-prakasa by Haridasa Nyayalankara.
8. Tattva-cintamani-didhiti by Raghunatha Siromani.
9. Mani-vyakhya by Kanada Tarkavagisa.
10. Tattva-cintamani-rahasya by Mathuranatha.
11. Tatva-cintamani-didhiti prasarini by Krsnadasa Sarvabhauma.
12. Tattva-cintamani-mayukha by Jagadisa Tarkalankara.
13. Tattva-cintamani-tika by Bhavananda Siddhantavagisa.
14. Tattva-cintamani-tika by Harirama Tarkavagisa.
15. Tattva-cintamani-gudhartha-dipika by Raghudeva Nyaya-lankara.
16. Tattva-cintamani - vyakhya by Gadadhara Bhattacarya.


Sub- Commentaries.

17. Aloka-darpana by Mahesa Thakkura.
18. Tattva-cintamani-aloka-parisista by Devanatha Thakura.
19. Tattva-cintamani-aloka-kantakoddhara by Madhusudana Thakkura.
20. Tattva-cintamani-aloka-rahasya by Mathuranatha Tarka-vagisa.
21. Didhiti-rahasya by Mathuranatha Tarkavagisa.
22. Tattva-cintamani-didhiti-prasarini by Krsnadasa Sarvabhauma.
23. Anumanaloka-prasarini-on Paksadhara by krsnadasa.
24. Sabdaloka-viveka by Gunananda Vidyavagisa.
25. Didhiti-tika by Ramabhadra Sarvabhauma.
26. Tattva-cintamani-didhiti-prakasika by Jagadisa Tarkalankara.
27. Tattva-cintamani-didhiti-gudhartha-vidyotana by Jayarama Nyayapancanana.
28. Tattva-cintamani-didhiti-prakasika by Bhavananda Siddhantavagisa.
29. Tattva-cintamani-didhiti-pariksa by Rudra Nyayavacaspati.
30. Didhiti-tika by Raghudeva Nyayalankara.
31. Tattva-cintamani-didhiti-prakasika by Gadadhara.
32. Tattva-cintamani-didhiti-tika by Ramarudra Tarkavagisa.



33. Tattva kalisankari-patrika by Kalisankara.
34. Tattva candri-patrika by Candra Narayana.
35. Tattva-raudri-patrika by Rudra Narayana, etc.

Of all the nations of the world, the Hindus and the Greeks appear to have developed systems of logic to a large extent in- dependently on each other. Hindu Logic in its rudimentary stage can be traced as early as the 6th century before Christ. Greek Logic assumed a definite form in the fourth century B.C. though its germs can be traced a little earlier in the controversies of the Sophists and Socrates. But so far as the five-limbed syllogism of Hindu Logic is concerned the Hindu logician may have been indebted in some way or other to the Greeks. While the syllogism was definitely formulated as a logical doctrine by Aristotle in his Rhetoric, Prior Analytics and Posterior Analytics in the 4th century B.C., the Hindu logician shows but a vague conception of it as late as the 1st century B.C. It is not inconceivable that the knowledge of Aristotle’s logic found its way through Alexandria, Syria and other countries into Taxila (vide Appendix A). This is rightly corroborated by the Hindu tradition that Narada visited Alexandria (Svetadvipa) and became an expert in the handling of the five-limbed syllogism. So simple is the syllogistic structure that it does not seem to require any theory of gradual development to explain its growth. And Aristotle might have conceived the idea of a syllogistic form into which all reasoning could be put as a complete whole.

I am inclined, therefore, to think that the syllogism did not actually evolve in Indian Logic out of inference and that the Hindu logician owed the idea of syllogism to the influence of Aristotle (vide Appendix B). To me, it is one of the most important enquiries in the history of Indian Logic to ascertain at what stage the doctrine of inference, which was an indigenous growth, was happily amalgamated with the borrowed art of syllogism into a common structure of logical thought. The Buddhist work Kathavatthu furnishes several logical terms, e.g. upanayana, nigamana, etc., of syllogistic reasoning. But we find not a single instance where these terms have been methodically combined so as to form a syllogism proper. An attempt has been made to discuss the point at issue in Appendix B, and I leave it to the reader to take my views for what they are worth.

Ancient logic was called Anviksiki, or the science of debate, but with the introduction of a syllogism or proper reasoning, it came to be called Nyaya from the 1st century A.D. The Nyaya-Sasha in its earliest age flourished in Mithila with Gotama but it attained its high development in Prabhasa with Aksapada. The mediaeval logic from the 4th century A.D. was called Pramana Sastra, inasmuch as it dealt with pramana, the means of valid knowledge, i.e. perception and inference. Ujjaini in Malwa and Valabhi in Gujarat were the scenes of activity of the Jaina logicians of the Svetambara sect. The Digambaras flourished principally in Pataliputra and Dravida (including Karnata) about the 8th century A.D. Buddhist logicians flourished in universities such as Kancipura, Nalanda (vide Appendix C), Odantapuri, Sri-dhanya-kataka, Kasmira and Vikramasila (vide Appendix E). In Bengal, Buddhist Logic attained its highest development during the reigns of the kings of the Pal dynasty (vide Appendix D). Modern Logic commenced in the 10th century A.D. and was, in its stage, called Prakarana or the Manual of Logic, but its real life began in the 13th century A.D., since when it has been called Tarka-Sastra or the science of Dialectics. It flourished in the University of Mithile (vide Appendix F) during the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries, and afterwards, that of Nadia (vide Appendix G) became its stronghold from the l6th century onwards.



Mahamahopadhyaya Dr. Satischandra Vidyabhushan came from a respectable Brahmana family in Faridpore. He was the third son of the well-known Pandit Pitambar Vidyavagisa and was born on the 30th July, 1870, in the village of Khalkula in Faridpore. Satischandra was an infant four years old when he lost his father. The family was large and yet had no earning member, and the eldest son Biswamber Jyotisarnava who was then only sixteen maintained the family under circumstances of great difficulty.

Satischandra first went to the village school at the early age of five and rapidly made his mark amongst his fellow students. He stood first in the Minor Vernacular Examination from his Division and secured a scholarship which enabled him to proceed to Navadvip and take admission into the Hindu School. He passed the Entrance Examination of Calcutta University in 1888 and obtained a scholarship which helped him to come to Calcutta and take his admission into the City College. In due course, he passed the F.A. Examination and then migrated to Krishnagar College. He took his B.A. degree with Honours in Sanskrit in 1892, and in the following year passed the M.A. Examination in Sanskrit from Calcutta Sanskrit College. Meanwhile, he had distinguished himself at the Sanskrit Examination held by the Vidagdha Janani Sabha of Navadwip and had obtained the title of Vidyabhusana. It may be mentioned here that while still an undergraduate student in the City College he had married in 1889 the youngest daughter of Babu Gangadhar Acharyya, the first Principal of the Midnapore College.

In 1893, shortly after Satischandra had passed the M.A. Examination in Sanskrit he settled at Krishnagar as a Professor of Sanskrit, in the local college. Here he had the special opportunity to study Sanskrit Kavya from Mahamahopadhyaya Ajitnath Nyayaratna and Sanskrit Nyaya from Mahamahopadhyaya Jadunath Sarvabhauma, each the recognised authority on his special subject. Some years later his services were lent by the Government of Bengal to the Buddhist Text Society under whose auspices he edited a number of useful Pali Texts and published several original papers which attracted the attention of scholars in Europe and America. About this time he came into contact with Rai Saratchandra Das, Bahadur, C.I .E., the distinguished Tibetan Explorer at whose request his services were again lent by the Government for three years to assist in the preparation of a Tibetan-English Dictionary. He was in Darjeeling for this purpose from 1897-1900 and utilised the opportunity to acquire a thorough mastery of the Tibetan language with the help of the celebrated Lama Funchhog Wangdan of Lhasa, then resident at Darjeeling. In December 1900, Satischandra came to Calcutta as a Professor at the Sanskrit College. At about this period, he acquired a thorough knowledge of Pali from Sramanas of Ceylon and Burma. In November 1901, he appeared a second time at the M.A. Examination of Calcutta University and chose Pali as his special subject. The University authorities were placed in difficulty finding a suitable examiner. Ultimately Mr. C. H. Tawney and Prof. E. B. Cowell who had for many years been connected with the University arranged with Professor T. W. Rhys Davids to conduct the examination. Satischandra achieved high distinction and his attainments were especially praised by the distinguished examiner. In March 1902, he was transferred to the Presidency College as a Professor of Sanskrit. In December 1905, the Tashi Lama came to India in order to visit the places sacred to Buddhists. Satischandra was deputed by the Government to accompany him, to act as Interpreter and to explain to him the histories and customs at the old Buddhist holy places. The Tashi Lama was highly pleased and presented Satischandra with a Khatag (silken upper garment) as a token of high regard. On the 1st of January 1906, the Governor-General bestowed upon him the coveted title of Mahamahopadhyeya. In 1907, on my nomination, Lord Minto, then Chancellor- of Calcutta University appointed him an Ordinary Fellow. At the same time, he became a Fellow of the Asiatic Society of Bengal and Joint, Philological Secretary. In 1908, the University conferred on him the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded him the Griffith Prize for original research. About this time the question of the Principalship of the Sanskrit College had come under the consideration of the Government of Bengal and the suggestion had been put forward that a European scholar should be appointed. The Lieutenant-Governor felt doubtful as to the advisability of such a step and discussed the matter with me as Vice-Chancellor of the University. I expressed my emphatic disapproval of the course proposed and expressed the opinion that Dr. Satischandra Vidyabhushan would be found admirably qualified for the Principalship if he were offered facilities for -further training. This view prevailed and during 1909 and 1910 Satischandra was placed on deputation. In June 1909, he went to Ceylon and studied for six months with the venerable High Priest Sumangala, Principal of the Vidyodaya College at Colombo.

The first six months of the year 1910 he spent at Benares where, under the guidance of Dr. A. Venis, then Principal of the Queen’s College, he studied under Subrahmanya Sastri, Bhagavatacharyya, Sibakumar Sastri, Jibanath Jha and Bamachan Nyayacharyya. After his return to Calcutta from Benares he studied for six months under the guidance of Dr. George Thibaut and acquired a good working knowledge of French and German. On the 1st December 1910, he assumed charge of the Principalship of the Sanskrit College. In 1912 and 1916, he passed with great distinction the Preliminary and Final Examinations in Tibet held by the Government and carried off the sanctioned prizes on both occasions. He also acted as Lecturer on Pali and Tibetan at the University. His fame as a profound scholar of versatile attainments had rapidly spread and he was eagerly sought after in literary conferences. In 1913, he was the first President of the All India Digambar Jain Conference held at Benares. In 1914, he was President of the All India Svetambar Jain Conference held at Jodhpur and of the All India Sanskrit Conference held at Hardwar. In 1916, he was President of the Bengal Literary Conference held at Jessore, and of the District, Literary Conference at Krishnagar. In 1919, he was a Vice-President of the First Oriental Conference held at Poona and President of the section on Pali and Buddhism. During this period he worked strenuously as a scholar, and the value of his contributions to Sanskrit, Pali and Tibetan studies cannot be easily appraised by a single individual. In the University itself he was a leading figure, and from 1912, acted as a Member of the Syndicate. His services were invaluable in reorganising Sanskrit studies of the indigenous Type and his work as Secretary to the Sanskrit Board and the Sanskrit Association founded by the Government will be gratefully remembered by Pandits of the present generation all over this Presidency. There can be little doubt that he overworked himself, and in 1919 the first signs of failing health were indicated by a mild stroke of paralysis. Friends and well-wishers implored him to spare himself, but he was deaf to their entreaties, for as he used to say, it is better to die than to remain invalid. Two other mild attacks followed and the recovery was slow and gradual. At last on the 25th April 1920, he passed away as the result of a sudden attack of apoplexy.

The publication of the present volume has a melancholy interest for me. In 1901 I had come across a monograph on “Hindu Logic as Preserved in China and Japan” by Sadajiro Sugiura who had offered it as a dissertation for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania. The work seemed to me of fascinating interest as opening up a new field of investigation full of untold possibilities. I suggested to Satischandra who at the time -was engaged in the study of Tibet that he should undertake to explore the materials available from Tibetan sources. The substance of his first research in this direction was embodied in his thesis on “Mediaeval School of Indian Logic” which brought him the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy and the Griffith Prize. He was however not content with this preliminary survey and continued steadily to collect fresh materials. The present volume was the result. At his request, I read through more than half of the work before it was finally printed off and this made me realise the true value of what he had accomplished. Professor Taraporewala has with loving care seen through the press all that had not been printed when Satischandra passed away.

A list of many varied writings (complete as far as it has been possible to make it) has been compiled by several people and is herewith appended.



Portrait of the late MM. Dr. Satischandra Vidyabhusana
Author's Preface
Foreword by Sir Asutosh Mukerjee
A List of the writings of the late Mahamahopadhyaya Dr. Satis Chandra Vidyabhushan.






Chapter I.
The Growth of Anviksiki into an Art of Debate.

  1. The Early Literature of India
  2. Problems of the Vedas
  3. Development of the conception of soul
  4. Atmavidya, the Science of soul
  5. Anviksiki, which includes a Theory of Reasons
  6. Anviksiki, bifurcates into Philosophy and Logic
  7. Anviksiki in its Philosophical Aspect called Darsana
  8. Various names for Anviksiki in its Logical Aspect.
Chapter II.

The Teachers of Anviksiki (Philosophy and Logic)

  1. Carvaka, his Materialistic Doctrine
  2. Kapila, his Doctrine of Matter and Soul
  3. Dattatreya, his Parable of a Tree
  4. Punarvasu Atreya, his Dissertation on the Senses
  5. Sulabha, a Lady Ascetic, her Canons of Speech
  6. Astavakra, a Violent Debater, how he Defeated a Sophist
  7. Astavakra Solves Puzzles
  8. Medhatithi Gautama, the Founder of Anviksiki par excellence.
Chapter III.

The Doctrines of Anviksiki

  1. A Council of Debate (Parisad)
  2. The Technical Terms used in the Council of Debate
  3. Tantra Yukti, the Terms of Scientific Argument
  4. Medhatithi Gautama's Doctrines as reproduced in the Carakasamhita
    1. Karyabhinirvrtti, the Aggregate of Resources for the Accomplishment of an Action
    2. Pariksa the Standard of Examination
    3. Sambhasa or vada-vidhi. the Method of Debate
Chapter IV.

The reception accorded to Anviksiki

  1. Anviksiki condemned in certain circles
  2. Anviksiki held in high esteem in some quarters


Chapter I.

The Growth of Nyayasastra

  1. Origin of the name Nyaya
  2. The Antiquity of Nyayasastra
  3. The Early Teachers of Nyayasastra
  4. Narada, an Expert in Nyayasastra
  5. Nyaya-sutra, the first systematic work on Nyayasastra
  6. Aksapada, the Author of the Nyaya-sutra
  7. Subjects of the Nyaya-sutra
  8. The Arrangement of Categories in the Nyaya-sutra
  9. The Process of Treatment of the Categories
Chapter II.

Contents of the Nyaya-sutra

  1. The Categories: their Enunciation
  2. The Categories: their Definition
    1. The means of Right Knowledge (pramana)
    2. The Objects of Right knowledge (prameya)
    3. Doubt (samsaya)
    4. Purpose (prayojana)
    5. Example (drstanta)
    6. Tenet (siddhanta)
    7. Members of a Syllogism (avayava)
    8. Confutation (tarka)
    9. Ascertainment (nirnaya)
    10. Discussion (vada)
    11. Wrangling (jalpa)
    12. Cavil (vitanda)
    13. Fallacy (hetvabhasa)
    14. Quibble (chala)
    15. Analogue (jati)
    16. A Point of Defeat (nigrahasthana)
  3. The Varieties of Analogue
      1. Balancing the homogeneity
      2. Balancing the heterogeneity
      3. Balancing an excess
      4. Balancing the deficit
      5. Balancing the questionable
      6. Balancing the unquestionable
      7. Balancing the alternative
      8. Balancing the question
      9. Balancing the co-presence
      10. Balancing the mutual absence
      11. Balancing the infinite regression
      12. Balancing the counter-example
      13. Balancing the non-produced
      14. Balancing the doubt
      15. Balancing the point at issue or the controversial
      16. Balancing the non-reason
      17. Balancing the presumption
      18. Balancing the non-difference
      19. Balancing the demonstration
      20. Balancing the perception
      21. Balancing the non-perception
      22. Balancing the eternal
      23. Balancing the effect

    Application of the Analogues
    Six-winged Disputation (satpaksi katha)
  4. Varieties of the Points of the Defeat
    1. Hurting the proposition
    2. Shifting the proposition
    3. Opposing the proposition
    4. Renouncing the proposition
    5. Shifting the reason
    6. Shifting the topic
    7. The meaningless
    8. The unintelligible
    9. The incoherent
    10. The inopportune
    11. Saying too little
    12. Saying too much
    13. Repetition
    14. Silence
    15. Ignorance
    16. Non-ingenuity
    17. Evasion
    18. Admission of an opinion
    19. Overlooking the censurable
    20. Censuring the non-censurable
    21. Deviating from a tenet
    22. The fallacies of reason also furnish points of defeat or occasion for rebuke
  5. Categories: their Examination (pariksa)
    1. The Means of Right Knowledge (pramana)
      The means
      Verbal testimony
      Other means
    2. The objects of right knowledge (prameya)
      The Soul
      Objects of Sense
    3. Doubt (samsaya)
    4. Discussion (vada)
    5. Wrangling and Cavil (jalpa-vitanda)
  6. Topics Incidentally Examined
    1. Parts and Whole (avayava and avayavin)
    2. Atoms (paramanu)
    3. The Three Times
    4. Words and their Meanings (sabdartha)
    5. The Veda
    6. Sound (sabda)
    7. Word (pada)
    8. The eyes (caksuh)
    9. Intellect (buddhi)
    10. Memory (smrti)
    11. The fixed signification of numbers (samkhyaikanta)
Chapter III.

Commentaries on the Nyaya-sutra

  1. Nature of the Commentaries
  2. Vatsyayana, author of the Nyaya-bhasya
  3. Vatsyayana criticises Nagarjuna
  4. Vatsyayana criticises other Doctrines of the Buddhists
  5. Vatsyayana's Explanation of Certain Doctrines
  6. Uddyotakara, Author of the Nyaya-vartika
  7. Uddyotakara's Controversy with the Buddhists
  8. Uddyotakara criticises Vasubandhu and Nagarjuna
  9. Uddyotakara criticises Dignaga
  10. Uddyotakara's Explanation of Perception
  11. Uddyotakara's Definition of Inference
  12. Uddyotakara's Theory of Verbal Knowledge
  13. Uddyotakara's Theory of Sufferings
  14. Vacaspati Misra, Author of the Nyaya-vartika-tatparayatika
  15. Vacaspati opposes Dignaga
  16. Vacaspati criticises Dharmakirti
  17. Vacaspati's Explanation of Determinate and Indeterminate Perceptions, Savikalpaka and nirvikalpaka
  18. Vacaspati's Theory of Right Knowledge and Wrong Knowledge (prama and aprama)

53a. Vacaspati's Theory of Condition (upadhi)
53b. The Theory of Cause and Effect (karya-karana)
53c. The Buddhist and Jaina Scriptures condemned

  1. Udayanacarya, Author of Nyaya-vartika-tatparya-tika-parisuddhi
  2. Udayana combats the Buddhists
  3. Udana opposes Kalvana Raksita and Dharmottara
  4. Udayana's Kusumanjali
  5. Udayana's Atma-tattva-viveka
  6. Jayanta, Author of the Nyaya-manjari
  7. Jayanta's Explanation of Verbal Knowledge
  8. Jayanta criticises the Doctrines of Kalyana Raksita and Dharmottara
  9. Jayanta's Review of several other Buddhistic Doctrines
  10. Srikantha
  11. Abhayatilaka Upadhyaya
  12. Other commentators on the Nyaya-sutra
Chapter IV.

The Nyaya is recognized as an Orthodox Learning.

  1. A comparative Estimate of the Anviksiki and the Nyaya
  2. The Nyaya included in Saddarsana
  3. The Nyaya supports the Veda
  4. The Nyaya adapts itself to Saivism
  5. The Popularity of Nyaya established




Chapter I.
Topics of Logic are mentioned in the Jaina canons.

  1. The Special Features of Mediaeval Logic.
    Formation of the Mediaeval school.
  2. Mahavira, the founder of Jainism
  3. The Jaina sects, Svetambara and Digambara
  4. Indrabhuti Gautama, a Disciple of Mahavira
  5. The canonical Scriptures of the Jainas
  6. Logical Subjects in the Canons
Chapter II.
Early Jaina Writers on Logic
    1. Bhadrabahu the Senior

    1. Bhadrabahu the Junior

  1. Bhadrabahu's Syllogism
  2. Bhadrabahu's Explanation of Syadvadu
  3. Umasvati
  4. Umasvati's Doctrine of Pramana (Right Knowledge)
  5. Umasvati's Explanation of Naya (the Mood of Statements)
Chapter III.

Jaina Writers on Systematic Logic

  1. The written Records of the Jainas
  2. Systematic Jaina Logic
  3. Siddhasena Divakara alias Ksapanaka
  4. Siddhasena's Nyayavatara
    Pramana, Right Knowledge
    Naya, the Method of Descriptions
  5. Jinabhadra Gani Ksamasramana
  6. Siddhasena Gani
  7. Samatabhadra
  8. Samatabhadra's Aptamimamsa
  9. Akalankadeva
  10. Vidyananda
  11. Manikya Nandi
  12. Manikya Nandi's Pariksamukha-sutra
    Valid Knowledge, pramana
    Syllogism, vyapti
    Reason, hetu
    Example, drstanta
    Inference, anumana
    Verbal Testimony, agama
    Scope of valid Knowledge, visaya
    Fallacy, abhasa
    References to Philosophers
  13. Prabhacandra
  14. Rabhasananda
  15. Mallavadin
  16. Amrtacandra Suri
  17. Devasena Bhattaraka
  18. Pradyumna Suri
  19. Abhayadeva Suri
  20. Laghusamantabhadra
  21. Kalyanacandra
  22. Anantavirya
  23. Deva Suri
  24. Deva Suri's Pramana-naya-tattvalokalankara
    Fallacies of Naya
    The Soul, atma
    The Method of Debate
  25. Hemacandra Suri
  26. Candraprabha Suri
  27. Nemicandra Kavi
  28. Ananda Suri and Amaracandra Suri, nicknamed Tiger-cub and Lion-cub
  29. Haribhadra Suri
  30. Parsvadeva Gani
  31. Sricandra
  32. Devabhadra
  33. Candrasena Suri
  34. Ratnaprabha Suri
  35. Tilakacarya
  36. Mallisena Suri
  37. Rajasekhara Suri
  38. Jnanacandra
  39. Gunaratna
  40. Srutasagara Gani
  41. Dharma Bhusana

52a. Vinayavijaya

  1. Yasovijaya Gani
  2. Yasovijaya's Works
Chapter IV.

Continuity of Jaina Logic

  1. The Conciliatory Character of Jaina Logic
  2. Royal Patronage and Persecution
  3. Support of the Jaina Community


Chapter I.
Topics of Logic mentioned in the Old Buddhist Literature

  1. Buddha Gautama
  2. Origin of the Pali Buddhist Literature
  3. Logical Topics in the Pali Literature
  4. Suttapitaka: Digha-nikaya: Brahmajala Sutta
  5. Suttapitaka: Majjhemanikaya Anumana Sutta
  6. Suttapitaka: Khuddaka Nikaya Udana
  7. Vinaya-pitaka: Parivara
    Four kinds of Cases for Settlement (adhikarna)
    Seven Rules for the Settlement of Cases (adhikarana-sama-tha-dhamma)
    A Complaint (codana)
    A Complaint in Complainant and Respondent
    A Judicial Council of Monks (sangha)
    Members of a Council (samgamavacarabhikkhu)
    The Judge or Umpire (anuvijjaka)
  8. Vinaya Pitaka: Patimikkha
  9. Abhidhamma-pitaka: kathavatthuppakarana
  10. Methods of Disputation as illustrated in the Kathavatthu
    A Case presented by a Dispute in a regular Form (anuloma)
    A Rejoinder by the Respondent (patikamma)
    The Rejoinder causing Entanglement or Defeat on the Disputant (niggaha)
    Application of the Reasoning of the Disputant to his own Case (upanaya)
    Conclusion (niggamana)
    A Case presented through a simple Comparison (suddhikasamsandana)
    Definition of Terms (lakkhanayatti katha)
    Clearing the Meaning of Terms (vacanasodhana)
    A Case presented through an Analog (opamma Samsandana)
    A Case presented through the four-fold Method (catukkhanayasamsandana)
    The Doctrine of Impermanence (khaneka katha)
  11. Milinda-panha alias the Bhiksu-Sutra
  12. Origin of the Mahayana
  13. Origin of the Sanskrit Buddhist Literature
  14. Logic mentioned in the Sanskrit Literature
  15. The Lalitavistara
  16. The Lankavatara-sutra
  17. Eighteen Sects of the Buddhists
  18. Four Schools of Buddhist Philosophy
Chapter II.

Early Buddhist Writers on Logic

  1. Rise of Buddhist Logic
  2. Arya Nagarjuna
  3. Nagarjuna's Madhyamiksa-karika
  4. Nagarjuna's References to the Logical Doctrines of Aksapada
  5. Nagarjuna's Vigrahu-vyavartani-karika
  6. Nagarjuna's Pramanu-vihetana or Pramana vidhvamsana
  7. Unaya-kausalya-hrdaya-sastra
  8. Arya Deva
  9. Maitreya
  10. Maitreya's Abhisamayalankara-karika
  11. Maitreya's Treatise on the Art of Debate
    1. The Subject of Debate
    2. The Place of Debate
    3. The Means of Debate
    4. The Qualifications of a Debater
    5. Points of Defeat (nigrahasthana)
    6. Attending a Place of Debate
    7. Confidence of a Debater
  12. Arya Asanga
  13. Vasubandhu
  14. Vasubandhu's Tarka-sastra
Chapter III.

Systematic Buddhist Writers on Logic

  1. The Commencement of Mediaeval Logic
  2. Acarya Dignaga, the Father of Mediaeval Logic
  3. Life of Dignaga
  4. Dignaga's Pramana-samuccaya
    Chapter I - Perception
    Chapter II - Inference for One's Self.
    Chapter III - Inference for the Sake of Others
    Chapter IV - Reason and Example
    Chapter V - Apoha, Negation of the Opposite
    Chapter VI - Analogues or Far-fetched Analogy
  5. Dignaga's Nyaya-pravesa
    A Syllogism, nyayavayava
    The Minor Term
    The Middle Term and the Major Term
    Fourteen Fallacies
    The example
    Perception and Inference
  6. Dignaga's Hetu-cakrahamaru
  7. Pramana-samuccaya-vrti
  8. Pramana-sastra-nyaya-pravesa
  9. Alambana-pariksa
  10. Alambana-pariksa-vrtti
  11. Trikala-pariksa
  12. Paramartha
  13. Sankara Svamin
  14. Dharmapala
  15. Acarya Silabhadra
  16. Acarya Dharmakirti
  17. Pramana-vartika-karika
  18. Pramana-vartika-vrtti
  19. Pramana-viniscaya
  20. Nyaya-bindu
    Inference for One's Self
    Inference for the Sake of Others
    Dharmakirti criticises Dignaga
  21. Hetu-bindu-vivarana
  22. Tarka-nyaya or Vada-nyaya
  23. Santanantara-siddhi
  24. Sambandha-pariksa
  25. Sambandha-pariksa-vrtti
  26. Devendrabodhi
  27. Sakyabodhi
  28. Vinita Deva
  29. Ravi Gupta
  30. Jinendrabodhi
  31. Santa Raksita
  32. Kamalasila
  33. Kalyana Raksita
  34. Dharmottaracarya
  35. Muttakumbha
  36. Arcata
  37. Asoka
  38. Candragomon (Junior)
  39. Prajnakara Gupta
  40. Acarya Jetari
  41. Jina
  42. Ratna Kirti
  43. Ratna Vajra
  44. Jina Mitra
  45. Danasila
  46. Jnanasri Mitra
  47. Jnanasri Bhadra
  48. Ratnakara Santi
  49. Yamari
  50. Sankarananda
  51. Subhakara Gupta
  52. Moksakara Gupta
  53. Contentious Spirit of Buddhist Logic
  54. Loss of Royal Patronage
  55. Advent of the Mahomedans
  56. The Brahmanic Preachers
  57. Shelter in Foreign Countries
  58. Extinction of the Buddhists and their Doctrines in India.




Chapter I.
The Nyaya-prakarana reduces its categories to one

  1. The Neo-Brahmanic age
  2. Composition of the Prakaranas, Manual of Logic
  3. Four Classes of Prakaranas
  4. Nyaya-parakarana developing the category of pramana
  5. Bhasarvajna
  6. Bhasarvajna's Nyaya-sara
    Nyaya-sara follows no particular Work
  7. Contents of the Nyaya-sara
    Perception, pratyaksa
    Inference, anumana
    Hetvabhasa, Fallacy of Reason
    1. Unproved (asiddha)
    2. The Contradictory (viruddha)
    3. The Uncertain (anaikantika)
    4. Non-tried or Non-conclusive (anadhyavasita or anupasamhari)
    5. Mistimed or Incompatible Reason (kalatyayopadista or badhita)
    6. Balancing the Controversy (prakarana-sama)
    7. Non-erroneous Contradiction (viruddhavyabhicari)
    Example, udaharana
    Verbal Testimony, agama
    Emancipation, moksa
  8. Commentaries on the Nyaya-sara
Chapter II.
Nyaya-prakaranas embodying Vaisesika categories
  1. The Nyaya incorporates the Vaisesika
  2. Varadaraja
  3. Tarkikaraksa
    Valid knowledge, pramana
    Inference, anumana
    Syllogism, avayana
    The Sign, linga
    Debate, katha
  4. Commentaries on Tarkikaraksa
  5. Kesava Misra
  6. Tarka-bhasa. Technically of Logic
    Categories, padartha
    Instrument, karana
    Cause, karana
    Perception, pratyaksa
    Inference, anumana
    Comparison, upamana
    Word, sabda
  7. Commentaries on the Tarka-bhasa
Chapter III.

The Vaisesika Prakarana embodying the Nyaya category of Pramana

  1. The Vaisesika incorporates the Nyaya category
  2. Vallabhacarya
  3. Nyaya-lilavati
  4. Commentaries on the Nyaya-lilvati
  5. Annam Bhatta
  6. Tarkasamgraha
  7. Commentaries on Tarkasamgraha
  8. Visvanatha Nyayapancanana
  9. Bhasa-pariccheda
  10. Tarkamrta
  11. Laugaksi Bhaskara
  12. Tarka-kaumudi
Chapter IV.
Works treating of certain topics of the Nyaya and certain topics of the Vaisesika.
  1. The Nyaya and Vaisesika promiscuously amalgamated
  2. Sasadhara
  3. Nyaya-siddhanta-dipa
  4. Madhavacarya
  5. Sarvadarsana-samgraha, Aksapada Darsana
    Inference as a Means of Right knowledge
    The inference as a Means of Right Knowledge cannot be denied


Chapter II.
Formation of the Tarka-sastra

  1. The Nyaya cannot be combined with Vaisesika
  2. Adoptation of Pramana alone
  3. Adoptation of the Vaisesika Principles
  4. Subtlety of Meanings aimed at
  5. Fine Definition of Terms
  6. The Use of TechnicalTerms
Chapter II.
Tattva-cintamani - the Earliest work on Tarka-sastra
  1. Importance of Tattva-cintamani
  2. Gangesa, the Author of the Tattva-cintamani
  3. The Text of Tattva-cintamani
    Book I: Perception, prtayaksa khanda
    Invocation of Blessings, mangala-vada
    The validity of Knowledge, Pramanya-vada
    Invalid Knowledge, Anyatha-khyati
    Intercourse between Senses and their Objects - Sannikarsa Ordinary Perception
        (laukika pratyaksa)
    Transcendent Preception (alaukika pratyaksa)
    Inference Samanaya-vada
    The Invalidity of Non-perception. Anupalabdhi or pramanya vada
    Non-existence (or Negation), Abhava-vada
    Causes of Perception, Pratyaksa-karana-vada
    The Atomic Nature of the Mind, Manonutva-vada
    The Doctrine or Self-consciousness, Anuvyavasaya-vada
    Immediate Perception, Nirvikalpa-vada
    Mediate Perception, Savikalpa-vada
    Book II: Inference, Anumana-khanda
    The Determination of Inferential Knowledge - Anumiti-niru-pana.
    Inference distinct from Perception
    Five Provisional Definitions of Invariable Concomitance, Vyapti-pancakam
    Definition of Invariable Concomitance given by "Lion" and "Tiger", Simha-vyaghrokta-   vyaptilaksana
    Non-existence whose Counterpart is qualified by a Nature abiding in a different Locus, Vyadhikarana-dharma-vacchinnabhavah
    Other objectionable Definitions of Invariable concomitance, Purvapaksah
    The conclusive Definition of Invariable Concomitances, Siddhanta-laksanam
    Non-existence of the General Form, Samanya bhavah
    Invariable Concomitance of Special Forms, Visesa-vyapti
    The Means of apprehending Invariable Concomitance, Vyapti-grahopayah
    Conclusion as to the Means of appending Invariable Concomitance. Vyapti-grahopaya-   siddhanta
    Reasoning (or Confutation), Tarka
    Comprehensiveness of Invariable Concomitance, Vyapty-anugamah
    Intercourse whose Character is General, Samanya-laksana
    Conclusion about the Intercourse whose Character is General. Samanya-laksana-siddhantah
    The Conditional Middle Term, Upadhi-vadah
    The State of Being the Locus or Minor Term, Paksata
    Considetation or knowledge of Premises, paramarsah
    An Exclusive Affirmative Inference, Kevalanvayyanumanam
    An Exclusive Negative Inference, Kevalavyatirekyanumanam
    An Affirmative - negative Inference
    Presumption, Arthapatti
    Inference for One's self, Svarthanumana
    Inference for the Sake of Others, Pararthanumana
    Syllogism, Nyayak
    Parts of a Syllogism, Avayavak
    Fallacies, Hetvabhasak
    Fallacies are serviceable as they point out Inefficiency
    Inference of God, Isvaranumanam
    Book III: Comparison, Upamana-khanda
    Book IV: Verbal Testimony, Sabda-khanda
    Definition of Verbal Testimony
    Verbal Knowledge, Sabda-bodhah
    Speech as a Means of Valid-knowledge
    Expectancy, Akanksa-vadah
    Consistency, Yogyata
    Contiguity, Asattih
    Intention, Tatparayam
    The Non-eternity of Sound
    Injuction, Vidhi-vadak
    Merit and Demerit, Apurva-vadah
    Potentiality, Sakti-vadak
    Implication, Laksana
    Compound Words, Samasa-vadah
    Verbal Suffixes, Akhyata-vadak
    The Roots, Dhatu-vadah
    Prefixes, Upasarga-vadah
    Validity of the Four Means of Knowledge
Chapter III.
Commentaries on the Tattva-cintamani
  1. The Popularity of Tattva-cintamani
  2. The Mithila School
  3. Vardhamana Upadhyaya
  4. Paksadhara Misra
  5. Vasudeva Misra
  6. Rucidatta Misra
  7. Bhagiratha or Megha Thakkura
  8. Mahesa Thakaura
  9. Sankara Misra
  10. Vacaspati Misra (the Younger or Junior)
  11. Misaru Misra
  12. Durgadatta Misra
  13. Devanatha Thakkura
  14. Madhusudana Thakkura
  15. The Nadia School
  16. Vasudeva Sarvabhauma
  17. Raghunatha Siromani
  18. Haridasa Nyayalankara Bhattacarya
  19. Janakinatha Sarma
  20. Kanada Tarkavagisa
  21. Ramakrsna Bhattacarya Chakravarti
  22. Mathuranatha Tarkavagisa
  23. Krsnadasa Sravabhauma Bhattacarya
  24. Gunananda Vidyavagisa
  25. Ramabhadra Sarvabhauma
  26. Jagadisa Tarkalankara
  27. Sabda-sakti-prakasika
  28. Rudra Nyayavacaspati
  29. Jayarama Nyayapancanana
  30. Gaurikanta Sarvabhauma
  31. Bhavananda Siddhantavagisa
  32. Harirama Tarkavagisa
  33. Visvanatha Siddhantapancanana
  34. Ramabhadra Siddhantapancanana
  35. Govinda Nyayavagisa
  36. Raghudeva Nyayalankara
  37. Gadadhara Bhattacharya
  38. Nrsinha Pancanana
  39. Ramadeva Ciranjiva
  40. Ramarudra Tarkavagisa
  41. Srikrsna Nyayalankara
  42. Jayarama Tarkalankara
  43. Rudrarama
  44. "Buno" Ramanatha
  45. Krsnakanta Vidyavagisa
  46. Rajacudamanimakhin
  47. Dharmarajadhvarin
  48. Gopinatha Mauni
  49. Krsna Bhatta Ade
  50. Mahadeva Puntamkar
  51. Raghunatha Sastri (Parvata)
Chapter IV.
Present State of the Science of Dialectics
  1. Patronage of the Maharaja of Nadia
  2. The Portuguese to be an Interest in Dialectics
  3. British Government encourages Nyaya
  4. Rise of Vernacular detrimental to Nyaya
  5. The Universities on the Western Model

Appendix A: The University of Taxila
Appendix B: Influence of Aristotle on the Development of the Syllogism in Indian Logic.
Appendix C: The University of Nalanda
Appendix D: A List of Kings of the Pala Dynasty of Bengal and Behar
Appendix E: The Royal University of Vikramasila
Appendix F: University of Mithila
Appendix G: The University of Nadia
Appendix H: The Tashi Lama's Visit to India
Appendix I: Reminiscences of a Visit to Labrang, Pamiyangchi and Padangi
Appendix J: Reminiscences of a Visit to Pamiyangchi
Appendix K: Journey to Ceylon


Index of Subjects
Index of Books
Index of Authors
Index of Quotations
Index of Sanskrit Terms

Tibetan Indexes
  1. Logical Terms
  2. Tibetan Quotations
  3. Books
  4. Proper Names
  5. Place Names
  6. Residuals
  7. Errata

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