Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Volume 12: Yoga: Indias Philosophy of Meditation

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Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Volume 12: Yoga: Indias Philosophy of Meditation
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The Volume Yoga: India’s Philosophy of Meditation, traces the intellectual history of Patanjala Yoga philosophy from the early centuries of the Common Era through the twentieth century. This volume also provides a systematic discussion of the philosophy of classical Yoga. Particular attention is given to the meaning of “concentration” (samadhi), “engrossment” (samapatti) and the “extraordinary cognitive capacities” (vibhutis, siddhis) and the role that these notions play in the Yoga philosophy, which are relevant for issues currently under discussion in contemporary western philosophy of mind. The volume as well compares and contrasts classical yoga philosophy with classical Samkhya and with Indian Buddhist thought. Although the primary focus of the volume is on Patanjala Yoga, the system of Hatha Yoga and other satellite systems of Yoga are discussed as well, and an attempt is made to differentiate clearly the classical system of Yoga Sastra from Hatha Yoga and the other satellite systems.

Some twenty-eight Sanskrit texts of Patanjala Yoga are summarized or noted in the volume. Twenty-six volumes of Hatha Yoga and the texts of some other satellite systems are also included. Altogether the volume contains summaries and or notations for some seventy-five Sanskrit texts.

Gerald James Larson is Rabindranath Tagore Professor Emeritus, Indiana University, Bloomington, USA, and Professor Emeritus, Religious Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara.

Ramshankar Bhattacharya was editor of the journal, Purana, and for many years a member of the research division of the Sampurnananda Sanskrit University, Varanasi.


There has been a long period of time between the publication of the Samkhya volume of the Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies (Samkhya: A Dualist Tradition in Indian Philosophy, Volume IV) in 1987 and this sequel on Yoga. Nevertheless, in our view, the two volumes are best used in tandem, since Patanjala Yoga as a philosophical tradition is unintelligible without the Samkhya ontology and epistemology. As may be recalled from our earlier Samkhya volume, we are inclined to go even further and to claim that Yoga as a philosophical tradition is a particular form of Samkhya, namely Patanjala-Samkhya. The expression “…as a philosophical tradition,” of course, is a fundamental caveat, and this will be discussed at some length in the Introduction. It will be shown that although Yoga and Samkhya are by no means identical and that there are significant differences in the classical formulation of each system, the family resemblance is so striking that it is impossible to discuss one system apart from the other.

I deeply regret that Dr. Ram Shankar Bhattacharya’s untimely death kept him from composing the Introduction to this volume on Yoga. He very much wanted to do the Introduction, since he viewed the philosophy of Yoga as an area of his primary scholarly interest through the years. His great erudition is to be found in his many critical editions of the Sanskrit texts of Yoga in the medium of Sanskrit. Also he wrote at least a brief summary of his views on Yoga in the medium of English in his book, An Introduction to the Yogasutra, already mentioned above in the foregoing In Memoriam.

Two additional acknowledgment are also necessary. First, varieties of Yoga have become popular throughout the world, and this volume on Yoga of the Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, if for no other reason than providing a summary overview, should at least touch upon these popular traditions. I would like to thank Ms. Autumn Jacobsen, a doctoral student in Religious Studies at the University of California at Santa Barbara, who wrote the final portion of the Introduction to this Volume, namely the section entitled “Contemporary Yoga Traditions”.

Second, thanks to Richa Pauranik Clements, my doctoral student at Indiana University, Bloomington, who assisted me in the editing of many of the summaries.

The bibliography on Yoga, of course, is vast, and we had to make difficult decisions about what to include and what not to include, both in terms of primary and secondary works. We hope that our selection, if not exhaustive, is at least representative of the most important texts. Also, it should be noted that we have divided the texts into two main groups, the Patanjala Yoga texts and what we have called “The Hatha Yoga System and Other Satellite Traditions of Yoga”. The dating of texts in the later centuries, of course, is nearly an impossible task, and it should be recognized that our attempts at dating are almost all only rough approximations.


The History and Literature of Yoga  
The History of Yoga: Preliminary Remarks 21  
Historiography on Yoga 30
Early “samkhya” and “yoga” 33
Samkhya and Yoga as System of Thought 36
Samkhya, “sastitantra”, Varsaganya and Isvarakrsna 37
Samkhya and Vindhyavasin 37
Vindhyavasin and Vasubandhu 39
Vindhyavasin and Vedavyasa 40
Yoga, Samkhya and Buddhist Thought 42
Yoga as a Hybrid System of Thought 44
Yoga and Samkhya: The Important Differences 46
Chronology of Yoga Philosophy-Principal Texts through Vijnanabhiksu 52
Composition of the Yogasutra and the Identity of Patanjali 54
Concluding Comments on the History of Yoga 67
The Philosophy of Patanjala Yoga  
The Philosophy of Yoga: Some Preliminary Methodological Remarks 70
The Philosophy of Yoga: An Introductory Overview 75
The Materialism of Yoga 78
The Dualism of Yoga 86
The Theism of Yoga 92
Concentration (samadhi) 100
The Yoga of Action (kriyayoga), and the Limbs of Yoga (yoganga) 116
Comprehensive Reflection (samyama) and the Extraordinary Cognitive Capacities (vibhuti, siddhi) 120
Spiritual Liberation (kaivalya) 133
The Hatha Yoga System and Other Satellite/Sectarian Yoga Traditions in India  
Hatha Yoga 139
Pancaratras 143
Pasupatas 143
Kapalikas 144
Kalamukhas 145
Natha Siddhas, Kanphata Yogis, and the Kaula Cult 146
Contemporary Yoga Movements (by Autumn Jacobsen)  
The Yoga Tradition of the Mysore Palace 148
Anusara Yoga 151
Ashtanga Yoga 152
Bikram Yoga 153
Integral Yoga 154
Iyengar Yoga 154
Jivamukti Yoga 154
Kundalini Yoga 155
Kripalu Yoga 155
Power Yoga 156
Self-Realization Fellowship or Kriya Yoga 156
Siddha Yoga 157
Viniyoga 158
Vinyasa Yoga 158
White Lotus Yoga 159
TEXTS: Patanjala Yoga Traditions  
1. Patanjalayogasastra (Yogasutras, attributed to Patanjali) (c. 350-400) 161
2. Patanjalayogasastrabhasya (Samkhyapravacana, attributed to Vedavyasa) (c.350-400) 184
3. Tattvavaisaradi of Vacaspati Misra (c. 950) 218
4. Patanjalayogasastravivarana or Patanjalayogasutra-bhasyavivarana, attributed to Samkara Bhagavatpada (c. 1050-1350) 239
5. Kitab Patanjala or “The Book of Patanjali” of al-Biruni (c. 1050) 261
6. Rajamartanda of Bhojadeva or Bhojaraja (c. 1050) 266
7. Sarvadarsanasamgraha of Sayana Madhava (c. 1350) 282
8. Maniprabha of Rarmananda Yati or Ramananda Sarasvati (c.1550-1600) 282
9. Patanjalarahasya of Raghavananda Sarasvati (c.1550-1600) 294
10. Yagavarttika of Vijnanabhiksu (c. 1550) 295
11. Yogasarasamgraha of Vijnanabhiksu (c.1550) 320
12. Pradipika of Bhavaganesa (c.1600-1700) 333
13. Yogasiddhantacandrika of Naraya Tirtha (c.1600-1700) 334
14. Sutrarthabodhini of Narayana Tirth (c.1600-1750) 353
15. Brhativrtti of Narayana Tirtha (c.1600-1700) 353
16. Laghuvrtti of Nagoji Bhatta or Nagesa (c.1700-1750) 355
17. Yogasudhakara of Sadasivendra Sarasvati (c. 1700-1800) 356
18. Yogacandrika of Anantadeva Pandita (c. 1800-1900) 359
19. Rajayogabhasya of Samkaracarya (c.1890s) 361
20. Yogabhasya of Balarama Udasina (c. 1890s) 366
21. Vaidikavrtti of Svamin Hariprasada (c. 20th century) 367
22. Sivoktayogayukti of Hariharananda Aranya (c. 20th century) 367
23. Paribhakti of Hariharananda Aranya (c. 20th century) 369
24. Yogakarika of Hariharananda Aranya (c. 20th century) 372
25. Bhasvati of Hariharananda Aranya (c. 20th century) 379
26. Yogapradipika of Baladeva Misra (c. 20th century) 396
27. Kirana of Krsnavallabhacarya (c. 20th century) 403
28. Jnananandabhasya of Jnanananda (c. 20th century) 406
TEXTS: The Hatha Yoga System and Other Satellite Traditions of Yoga  
29. Kaulajnananirnaya, attributed to Matsyendranatha (c. 900-950) 436
30. Siddhasiddhantapaddhati, attributed to Goraksanatha (c. 100-1250)  
31. Goraksasataka, attributed to Goraksanatha (c. 1200-1250) 455
32. Goraksapaddhati attributed to Goraksanatha (c. 1000-1250) 464
33. Yogabija, attributed to Goraksanatha (c.100-1250) 464
34. Goraksasiddhantasamgraha, author unknown 470
35. Siddhasiddhantapaddhati of Nityanatha (c.1000-1400) 476
36. Yogayajnavalkya, author unknown (c.1200-1300) 476
37. Hathayogapradipika of Svatmarama Yogin (c.1350-1400) 489
38. Gherandasamhita, author unknown (c.1650-1700) 502
39. Sivasamhita, author unknown (c.1650-1700) 506
40. Satcakranirupana (6th chapter of Purnananda’s Sritattvacintamani) (c.1600-1700) 516
41. Vasisisthasamhita, author unknown (c.160-1700) 521
42. Satkarmasamgraha of Cidghananandanatha (c. 600-1700) 521
43. Hatharatnavali of Srinivasabhatta (c. 1600-1700)  
44. Hathasamketacandrika of Sundaradeva (c. 1850) 526
45. Hathatattvakaumudi of Sundaradeva (c. 1850) 531
46. Yogacintamani of Sivananda (c. 1850) 535
47. Yogataranga of Devatirthasvamin (c. 1855) 543
48. Jyotsna of Brahmananda (c. 1850-1900) 547
49. Yogakarnika of Aghoranandanatha (c. 1905) 560
50.Yogarahasya of Satyadeva (c. 1920) 561
51. Brhadyogiyajnavalkya, author unknown (20th century) 568
52. Yogataravali of Samkaracarya (c. 20th century) 574
53. Pavanavijayasvarodaya, author unknown (c. 20th century) 576
54. Uttaragita, author unknown (. 20th century) 583
APPENDIX: Some additional texts  
55. Yogavasistha, author unknown (c. 10th century) 589
Yoga Upanisads (1200-1600)  
56 Advayataraka 591
57 Amrtanada 592
58 Amrtabindu 593
59 Ksurika 595
60 Tejobindu 595
61 Trisikhi 597
62. Darsana 599
63. Dhyanabindu 600
64. Nadabindu 604
65. Pasupatabrahma 606
66. Brahmavidya 609
67. Mandalabrahmana 611
68. Mahavakya 614
69. Yogakundali 615
70. Yogacudamani 616
71. Yogatattva 618
72. Yogasikha 620
73. Varaha 623
74. Sandilya 626
75. Hamsa 628

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