Buddhism in Translations

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Buddhism in Translations
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The materials for this book are drawn ultimately from the Pali writings of Ceylon and Burma, - that is to say, they are to be found in palm-leaf manuscripts of those countries, written in the Singhalese or Burmese alphabet, as the case may be, but always in the same Pali language, a tongue very nearly akin to the Sanskrit. These Pali writings furnish the most authoritative account of The Buddha and his Doctrine that we have; and it is therefore to be regretted that, inasmuch as so little has been known in the Occident until recently of either Pali or Pali literature, the information of the public concerning Buddhism has been so largely drawn from books based on other, non-Pali, sources, on works written in the Singhalese, Chinese, and Tibetan languages, and in the Buddhist-Sanskrit of Nepaul. But a large number of Pali manuscripts have now been edited and printed in the publications of the Pali Text Society of London, and in scattered works both in England and in other European countries, and several volumes of translations into English have appeared, so that all excuse for not deriving our knowledge of Buddhism from the most authentic sources is fast disappearing.

As the work on this book has been done wholly in America, my main reliance has naturally been on printed texts. Still, I have had the use of a number of Pali manuscripts. In Brown University at Providence, Rhode Island, there are many manuscripts, in the Burmese character, of works belonging to the Buddhist Scriptures. These were presented by the Rev. Dr. J. N. Cushing, Baptist missionary to Burma, and an alumnus of the University. But the manuscripts which, as being both important and unedited, have proved of most value to me, are four copies of the extensive and systematic treatise on Buddhist Doctrine composed by the famous Buddhaghosa, who flourished in the fourth century A.D. It is called the "Way of Purity" (in Pali, Visuddhi-Magga). These four manuscripts have come to me from England: one is from the private collection of Prof. T. W. Rhys Davids Secretary of the Royal Asiatic Society; the second belonged to the late Rev. Dr. Richard Morris of Harold Wood, Essex; the third to Henry Rigg, Esq., consulting engineer to the Government of India, for railways; while for the loan of the fourth, a Burmese manuscript, my thanks are due to the India Office Library.

Back of the Book

Here is a work that aims at presenting 'different ideas and conceptions; which are 'found in Pali writings'. In the words of Henry Clarke Warren, the author of the volume: 'Translation has been the means employed as being the most effectual… The selections of the first chapter are on the Buddha; next follow those which deal chiefly with the Doctrine; while others concerning the Order and secular life constitute the closing chapter of the book.'

The uniqueness of the volume lies in the selective presentation of the materials and their organization. Introductory notes preceding discussion of each chapter, amply annotated, add to its originality. Appendixes and the Index form special features.

This preprint of the volume after its first publication in 1896 and subsequently in 1900 will be welcomed by students as well as researchers of Buddhism.

Henry Clarke Warren was born in Boston in 1854. He was educated in the universities of Harvard and Johns Hopkins. While a student he was attracted to the philosophy of Buddhism and studied it from original Pali sources.

Henry Clarke Warren was one of the authorities on Buddhism and Pali literature. Harvard Oriental Series was instituted on munificent endowment from his earrings. He translated and edited Visuddhi-Magga by Buddhaghosa which was issued as Buddhaghosa's Way of Purity in Harvard Oriental Series (Vol. 41, 1950). He died in 1899.



  Abbreviations xi
  General Introduction xiii
  Introductory Discourse 1
1 The Story of Sumedha 5
2 A List of former Buddhas 32
3 The Characteristics of a Future Buddha 33
4 The Birth of The Buddha 38
5 The Young Gotamid Prince 48
6 The Great Retirement 56
7 The Great Struggle 67
8 The Attainment of Buddhaship 71
9 First Events after the Attainment of Buddhaship 83
10 The Conversion of Sariputta and Moggallana 87
11 The Buddha's daily Habits 91
12 The Death of The Buddha 95
  Introductory Discourse 111
13 Questions which tend not to Edification 117
14 King Milinda and Nagasena come to an Understanding 128
15 There is no Ego 129
16 All Signs of an Ego are Absent 146
17 No continuous Personal Identity 148
18 The Mind less permanent than the Body 150
19 What is Unity or One? 153
20 Analysis of the Human Being 155
21 The Composition of the Body 157
22 On getting Angry 159
23 The Origin and Cessation of the Human Being 159
24 Inanimate Nature 164
25 The Middle Doctrine 165
26 Ignorance 170
27 Karma 179
28 Consciousness 182
29 Name and Form 184
30 The Six Organs of Sense 186
31 Contact 186
32 Sensation 187
33 Desire 187
34 Attachment 189
35 Existence 194
36 Birth etc. 201
37 Discussion of Dependent Origination 202
  Introductory Discourse 209
38 Be a Friend to Yourself 213
39 The Cause of Inequality in the World 214
40 Fruitful and barren Karma 215
41 The Death of Moggallana 221
42 Good and bad Karma 226
43 How to obtain Wealth, Beauty, and Social Position 228
44 The Round of Existence 232
45 Cause of Rebirth 232
46 Is this to be my Last Existence? 233
47 Rebirth is not Transmigration 234
48 Reflections on Existence 242
49 Different kinds of Death 252
50 How Existence in Hell is Possible 253
51 Death's Messengers 255
  "The Three Warnings" 259
52 The Ass in the Lion's Skin 262
53 The devoted Wife 264
54 Friendship 267
55 Virtue is its own Reward 269
56 The Hare-mark in the Moon 274
  Introductory Discourse 280
57 The Way of Purity 285
58 Concentration 288
59 The Thirty-one Grades of Being 289
60 The Forty Subjects of Meditation 291
61 The Earth-kasina 293
62 Beauty is but Skin-deep 297
63 The Conversion of Animals 301
64 Love for Animals 302
65 The Six High Powers 303
66 Spiritual Law in the Natural World 306
67 Going Further and Faring Worse 308
68 Sariputta and the Two Demons 313
69 World-cycles 315
70 Wisdom 330
71 The Summum Bonum 331
72 Mara as Plowman 349
73 The Fire-sermon 351
74 The four Intent Contemplations 353
75 The Attainment of the Paths 376
76 Nirvana to be attained at Death 380
77 The Attainment of Nirvana by Godhika 380
78 The Trance of Cessation 383
79 The Attainment of Nirvana 389
  Introductory Discourse 392
80 Conduct 393
81 The Admission and Ordination Ceremonies 393
82 The Serpent who wanted to be a Priest 401
83 The Buddhist Confession of Priests 402
84 The Order receive leave to dwell in Houses 411
85 Residence during the Rainy Season 414
86 The Mendicant Ideal 417
87 The Value of Training in Religion 420
88 The colorless Life 421
89 Can the Saint suffer? 422
90 The Body is an open Sore 423
91 Heaven not the Highest Good 424
92 The Saints Superior to the Gods 424
93 The Anger-eating Demon 426
94 Contentment is Riches 428
95 The Story of a Priest 430
96 The young Stone-Throwor 432
97 "And hate not his father and mother" 434
98 No Buddhist should commit Suicide 436
99 The Admission of Women to the Order 441
100 A Family of Magicians 448
101 The Story of Visakha 451
102 The Buddhist Apocalypse 481
103 The Five Groups 487
  INDEX 497

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