Concept of Sentence Analysis in Nyaya Philosoph

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Concept of Sentence Analysis in Nyaya Philosoph
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About The Book

The book 'Concept of Sentence Analysis in Nyaya Philosophy' is a comprehensive study of the language of Old Nyaya's texts to Navya Nyaya - in historical perspective. It presents the core material of the original Sanskrit texts in an analytical manner in comparison to modern transformational linguistics and into logical terms. The five chapters throw light on the origin of language, concept of sentence, analysis of affirmative and negative sentences, meaning of a sentence and import of a sentence. It helps to open a new horizon before the coming scholars in this field by comparative linguistic approach.

 

About the Author

Dr. Punita Sharma is presently working as a Lecturer in Sanskrit, Sri Venkateswara College (University of Delhi), Delhi. She is M.A.; M.Phil.; Ph.D.; Post M.A. Diploma in Linguistics; Jyotisacarya (Phalita). A number of fellow ships and special prizes are on her credit. She was awarded All India Post Graduate Scholarship and All India Junior Research Fellowship for higher studies. Besides it, she was awarded 'V.G. Rahurkar Prize' for Veda (Best Article Award Young Scholars) in 38th All India Oriental Conference, Calcutta, 1997 on her research paper - 'Metaphysics of Consciousness in the Perspective of Nasadiya Sukta'. Awarded 'Bharati Mishra Gold Medal' for highest marks in all acaryas in 1990. Pratibha Puraskara from Delhi Sanskrit Academy in 1990. She participated in various conferences and seminars and presented the papers. A book Slokavarttika me Pratyaksa Pramana' (in Hindi) is under publication. Presently working for a U.G.C. Project A Dictionary of Indian Astrology'.

 

Foreword

It gives me immense pleasure in writing this Foreword to a book entitled "CONCEPT OF SENTENCE ANALYSIS IN NYAYA PHILOSOPHY" penned by my former student Dr. Punita Sharma and presently a member of the Department of Sanskrit, Sri Venkates wara College, University of Delhi. During her student days, she had evinced keen interest in both Vyakarana and Nyaya and developed a discerning judgement. I am happy to note that now her efforts in her chosen field of research are bearing wholesome result. Her present book which is related to Concept of Sentence Analysis in Nyaya Philosophy is a refreshing attempt as it touches many uncared aspects of the transformational linguistics.

It may be safely asserted that while other systems are speculative, Navya Nyaya represents an analytic and logical type of Philosophy. The merits of Navya Nyaya speculations pre-eminently lie in their method of analysis of concepts and their formulations in exact terminology. The analysis is carried to its utmost limit and the dissection of implications has necessiated the creation of a terminology which is extremely difficult and not infrequently bewildering. Language has been stretched to its utmost capacity, and even an ordinary concept, analysed in all its implications and expressed with meticulous precision, has required a ponderous sentence. The unusual sound of the Sesquipedalian phrases, in which the Naiyayikas frighten away the neophyte from the study of Navya Nyaya texts. These texts are not purely linguistic, but logical in character. To master the terminology is a hard task. But, once the intricacies of terminology are mastered, the reward is bound to culminate in intellectual satisfaction and a habit of close thinking, so essential for the successful comprehension of any problem theoretical or practical.

 

Prelude

In the words of Bhartrhari 'sarvam sabdena - bhasate', all knowledge is illumined through the word. In every field of study solutions of the various problems can be taken out only through the medium of language. Therefore, language is a fascinating aspect of human behaviour. Considering the importance given to language ab antiqup, scholars paid due attention to know the real nature of it. In short, it is the nucleus, around which all the linguistic problems have cropped up. Analysis should be essential for the study of language also. Whether language can be analysed or not, remained a debated issue from the very ancient times. In the oldest work of Indian tradition, i.e. in the Veda, language is stated as an indivisible entity (avyakrta Vak), but the later works like Brahmanas, Nirukta etc. depict the analysis of it. Later on, the debate on the concept of Vak almost fell into oblivion and its place was taken by 'Sentence Analysis', because philosophers and logicians as well as grammarians and linguists started to become interested in the basic idea that sentence is the unit of language. This idea possibly touched the zenith at the time of Bhartrhari when he expounded in his magnum opus 'Vakyapadiya', that, sentence is an indivisible entity. On the contrary, logicians (Naiyayikas) refuted this and emphasized on its analytical aspect.

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