Evolution of Indian Philosophy,Andhra University Philosophical Studies,

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Evolution of Indian Philosophy,Andhra University Philosophical Studies,
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This book focuses on the evolution of philosophy in India as that invariably interconnected with polity and persons, economy and environment. It is unique for in its introduction M.N. Roy has evaluated the Indian philosophical heritage; and the author has boldly demarcated philosophy from theology and sheds light on the true import of philosophical systems in India.

It is useful as reference book for students and scholars by providing a new perspective to the existing knowledge of Indian Philosophy.

About the Author:

Padma Vibhushan Professor K. Satchidananda Murty has taught philosophy at Andhra University for a quarter century. Formerly he was the Vice-Chancellor of S.V. University, Vice-Chairman of the UGC, and the Chairman of Indian Philosophical Congress. He is the most thought-provoking philosopher of our times, whose books on Indian philosophy, culture, religion-particularly Vedanta contain an instructive and penetrating analysis.

Preface to the Second Edition

MAHAMAHOPADHYAYA K. Satchidananda Murty is the most thought-provoking philosopher of our times, whose books on Indian philosophy, culture, religion - particularly Vedanta - contain "an instructive and penetrating analysis," and fill the gaps left by famous writers, insisting on the relevance and the forgotten dimension of philosophical learning in India. This work, which was originally entitled Evolution of Philosophy in India and printed at St. Michael's Industrial School Press, Guntur of Andhra Pradesh in 1952 did not enjoy a wide circulation. It is now brought out under the modified titled, Evolution of Indian Philosophy for the benefit of students and researchers to keep as a reference book.

One can appreciate this work, if one is familiar with Bertrand Russell's History of Western Philosophy and the history of India, through which one can learn that life and thought are invariably interconnected with polity and persons, economy and environment. The sections of this text were originally chapters, but now have been rearranged in accordance with the popular pattern of writing Indian philosophy. In this edition no single sentence has been added, however too many references and complex narratives have been reduced. As a whole a few sentences here and there in a chapter or two in the entire text have been deleted; thus the original text has been kept alive, both in spirit and content.

The first chapter demonstrates the socio-political, geographical and racial causes for the formation of human thinking, followed by a chapter on what philosophy is and the nature of Indian philosophy. The Vedas and Upanisads, the Bhagavad-Gita, and about five schools of Vedanta, including Kasmira-Saivism were discussed at length in three different chapters. Another three chapters on Carvakas, Jainism and Buddhism; and one on Samkhya and Vaisesika were dealt with; however this book does not contain any chapter or section on the systems of Nyaya, Yoga and Mimamsa. Probably Professor Murty might have been influenced by the writings of Max Muller, Paul Deussen and Garbe, assuming that the Mimamsa as scriptural exegesis of the ritualistic portion of the Vedas, Yoga as a form of discipline of meditation, and Nyaya as the science of logic, have little philosophy.

When the philosophical circles throughout the world are being swept away by the cyclone of epistemological analysis, and the tsunami of metaphysical speculations, the "Andhra University Philosophical Studies" series reoriented to the traditions of Socrates and Sankara, which were initiated by S. Radhakrishnan and P.T. Raju at Andhra University followed by K. Satchidananda Murty, with the motto "Global Understanding with Vedantic Spirit" wherein the Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies inculcates in its curriculum ethics, social ideals and culture values, embodied both in secular society and religious thought. As such Evolution of Indian Philosophy is the eighth volume in the "Andhra University Philosophical Studies Series," which was started a few years ago.

The foreword written by Professor A.R. Wadia from Baroda and the introduction by honourable M.N. Roy written from Dehradun respectively on 20th and 30th April in the year 1952 reveal the method and spirit in which the book is written. This book is dedicated to Professor V.S. Krishna, the then Vice-Chancellor of Andhra University. Having been directed by Professor Murty for our doctoral researches on Vedanta and Buddhism, and being associated as his younger colleagues in the Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, we feel proud in presenting to the seekers of truth, the insights of Professor K. Satchidananda Murty with reference to the evolution of philosophy in India. In this context, we are thankful to Professor K. Ramesh of the Department of IRPM in Andhra University, the youngest son of Professor K. Satchidananda Murty for permitting us to undertake the second edition. We are grateful to Shri Susheel K. Mittal, Director of the D.K. Printworld for publishing this under the "Andhra University Philosophical Studies" series.
Andhra University
August 2006


  Foreword v
  Preface vii
  Preface to the Second Edition ix
  Key to Transliteration xii
  Introduction 1
1. Being and Thinking 12
  Sociology of Knowledge and its Effects 12
  Developments in Psychology and their bearing 19
  The Nature of Thought 23
  Effects of Geographical Environment on Thought 30
2. Origins of Philosophy 38
  Emergence of Philosophy 38
  Fusion of Races: Formation of Indian Mind 48
  What is Philosophy? 53
  General Features of Indian Philosophy 59
3. The Vedas and Upanisads 70
  Philosophy in the Vedas 70
  From the Hymns to the Upanisads 78
4. The Bhagavad-Gita 100
  The Bhagavatas 100
  Monotheism 104
5. The Carvakas 108
  Indian Materialism 108
  The Lokayatas 110
6. Jainism 114
  Historical Background 114
  Brief Sketch of Jainism 116
7. Buddhism 120
  Life and Message of the Buddha 120
  Progress of Buddhism 136
  Philosophical Developments in Buddhism 148
8. Samkhya and Vaisesika 169
  Development of Samkhya 169
  Origins of Vaisesika 179
9. Schools of Vedanta 185
  Kasmira-Saivism 186
  Saivism in South India 190
  Sankara: Advaita Vedanta 193
  Ramanuja: Visistadvaita Vedanta 203
  Madhva: Dvaita Vedanta 217
  Later Cults and Future 224
  Conclusion 228
  Index 259

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