Pahlavi Texts (Set in 5 Vols.) (SBE Vol. 5, 18, 24, 37 & 47)

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  • Book Name Pahlavi Texts (Set in 5 Vols.) (SBE Vol. 5, 18, 24, 37 & 47)
  • Author F. Max Muller
  • Language, Pages English, 438 Pgs. (HB)
  • Last Updated 2023 / 05 / 26
  • ISBN 9788120801066, 8120801067

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Pahlavi Texts (Set in 5 Vols.) (SBE Vol. 5, 18, 24, 37 & 47)
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Introduction to the First Volume (The Bundhis Bahman Yast and Shayast La-Shayast

Though we must look to the Avasta for information regarding the main outlines of the Parsi religion it is to Pahlavi writings we must refer for most of the details relating to the traditions ceremonies and customs of this ancient faith which styles itself emphatically the good religion of the Mazdayasnians and calls its laity bahdinian or those of the good religion. In the fragments of the Avesta which still exist we may trace the solid foundations of the religion laid by philosophic bards and lawgivers of old with many mouldering column and massive fragment of the superstructure erected upon them by the ancient pristhod. These are the last remnants of the faith held by Cyrus the anointed of the Lord the righteous one or eagle whom he called from the east and the shepherd who performed his pleasure scattered fragments of the creed professed by Darius in his inscriptions when he attributes his success to the will of auramazda and mouldering ruins of the comparatively pure religion of oriental bar-barism which Alexander and his civilizing greek successors were unable wholly to destroy and replace by their own idolatrous superstitions while in the Pahlavi texts we find much of the medieval edifice built by later Persian priest craft upon the old foundation with a strange mixture of old and new materials and exhibiting the usual symptom of declining powers a strong insistence upon complex form and minute details with little of the freedom of treatment and simplicity of outline characteristic of the ancient bards.

To understand the relationship between these two classes of Parsi sacred writings, it must be observed that the Avesta and Pahiavi of the same scripture taken together, form its Avesta and Zand, terms which are nearly synonymous with ‘revelation and commentary.’ Both words are derived from verbal roots implying ‘ knowledge;’ Avesta being the Pahiavi avistâk, which may most probably be traced to the past participle of a, ‘to,’ + vid, ‘to know,’ with the meaning of ‘what is announced’ or ‘declaration;’ and 4ind, being the Pahlavi form of Av. zainti, must be referred to the root zan, ‘to know,’ with the meaning of’ knowledge, understanding’.’ European scholars, misled probably by Muhammadan writers, have converted :he phrase ‘Avesta and Zand’ into ‘Zend-Avesta,’ and have further identified Zand with the language of the Avesta. This use of the word Zand is, however, quite at variance with the practice of all Parsi writers who have been independent of European influence, as they apply the term Zand only to the Pahlavi translations and explanations of their sacred books, the original text of which they call Avesta. So that when they use the phrase ‘Avesta and Zand’ they mean the whole of any scripture, both the Avesta text and Pahlavi translation and commentary. And the latter, being often their only means of understanding the former, has now become of nearly equal authority with the Avesta itself. It is probable, indeed, that the first Zand was really written in the Avesta language, as we find many traces of such Avesta commentaries interpolated both in the Avesta and Pahlavi texts of the Parsi scriptures ; but this is rather a matter of European inference than of Parsi belief. The later (or Pahlavi) Zand appears also, in many places, to be merely a translation of this earlier (or Avesta) Zand, with additional explanations offered by the Pahlavi translators.

Regarding the sactedness of these Pahlavi translations, in the eyes or the Parsis, there can be no manner of doubt, so far as they cannot be shown to be inconsistent with the original Avesta text. But besides these translations there is another class of Pahlavi religious writings whose authority is more open to dispute. These writings are either translations and Zands of Avesta texts no longer extant or they contain the opinions and decisions of high priests of later times when the Pahlavi Language was on the decline. Such writings would hardly be considered of indisputable authority by any Parsi of the present day unless they coincided with his own preconceived opinions. But for outsiders they have the inestimable value either of supplying numerous details of religious traditions and customs which would be vainly sought for elsewhere or of being contemporary records of the religious ideas of the Parsis in the declining days of their Mazdayasnian faith. It is with a few of such writings this volumes has to deal but before describing them more minutely it will be desirable to give some account of the Pahlavi language in which they are written.


Introduction to the Second Volume (The Dadistani-I Dinik and the Epistles of manu Skihar) Part II

The Pahlavi texts selected for translation in this volume are distinguished from all others by the peculiarity that both the name and station of their author and the time in which he lived are distinctly recorded.

His name Manushikhar son of Yudan Yim is mentioned in each of the headings and colophons to the dadistan I dinik and the three Epistless attributed to him. He is styles simply a erpat or preist in the heading of Eps I and II and aerpat khudai or priestly lordship in that of Ep. III but he is called the rad pontiff or executive high priest of pars and priests in the colophons of Dd. And Ep. II and we learn from Dd. XLV 5 that the farmadar was also the pesupati or leader of the religion the supreme high priest of the mazda worshipping faith.

Regarding his family we learn from Ep. I iii,10, vii, 5 that his father yudan yim son of shahpuhar had been the leader of the religion before him and his own succession to this dignity indicates that he was the eldest surviving son of his father who in his declining years seems to have been assisted by his advice we also learn from the heading of his second epistle that zad sparam was his brother and this is confirmed by the language used in Ep. II vi, I, Ix 6 and by Zad sparam being a son of the same father that he was a younger brother appears from the general tone of authority over him adopted by manuskihar in his epistles. Shortly before these epistles were written zad-sparam appears to have been at Sarakhas in the extreme north east of Khurasan where he probably came in contact with the Tughazghuz and adopted some of their heretical opinions and whence he may have travelled through Nivshhpuhar and Shira on his way to sirkin to take up his appointment as high pries of the south heading II soon after his arrival at sirkan he issued a decree regarding the ceremonies of purification which led to complaints from the people of that place and compelled his brother to interfere by writing epistles threatening him with deprivation of office and the fate of a heretic. That Zad sparam finally submitted so far as not to be deprived of his office appears from his still retaining his position in the south while writing his selection whci must have been compiled at some later period free from the excitement of active and hazardous controversy.

The age in which Manuskihar lived in decided by the date attached to his third epistle or public notification to the mazda worshippers of Iran which date is the third month of the year 250 of Yazdakard corresponding to the interval between the 14th June and 13th July A.D. 88 at which time we learn he was an old man but not too old to travel.

His writings therefore represent that state of the Zoroastrain religion a thousand years ago and it may be presumed from the importance and influentialness of his position that his representations can be implicitly relied upon. To detect any differences there many be between the tenents and religious of the present time would require all the learning and experience of a Parsi priest but so far as a European can judge from these writings and his own limited knowledge of existing religious customs among the Parsis the change has been less than in any other form of religion during the same period.


Introduction to the Third Volume (Part III) (Dina-I Mainog-I Khirad Sikand-Gumanik Vigar Sad Dar

I. The Dina-I Mainog Khirad
The Pahlavi Phrase Dina-I Manog Khirad opinions of the spirit of wisdom is a name applied to sixty two enquiries or series of enquiries on subjects connected with the religion of the Mazda worshippers made by an anonymous wise man and answered by the spirit of wisdom. But as this name is only found prefixed to a manuscript written in A.D. 1569 in which the first part of the work is missing it is doubtful whether it be the original name of the book or not although it is very suitable to the general character of the work.

Regarding the reading of this name here adopted it must be observed that the correct pronunciation of the Pahlavi word mainog spirit is uncertain the traditional reading is madonad which is a possible pronunciation of its letters but is otherwise inexplicable Haug proposed to read mainivad or minavad but in that case the word ought to end with or with nd some of the present Dasturs read minoe but his would be written minoekin Pahlavi the Pazand writers have mainy but this is evidently an imitation of Av. Mainyavo and odes not correspond with the Pahlavi letters. As the word is manu or mino in the Sasamian inscritions and minu in Persian to which words a final letter of the Pahlavi word is not d or e but g a corruption of K, and that we ought to read ming or mainog. At the same time it should be noticed that a very old copy of the Pahlavi Farhang in the library of dastur Jamaspji Minochiharji in Bombay has the word written with an extra medial stroke so that it might be read minavand as required by Haug’s hypothesis although this copy of the Farhang gives mad one dast the traditional reading.

The subjects discussed by the Spirit of wisdom are of a very miscellaneous character and their discussion is evidently intended to furnish an outline of the tenets legends, and morality of the religion with which they deal but it forms by no means a complete or systematic treatise on these subjects and it is remarkably silent with regard to all details of religious rites and ceremonies. Which are only occasionally mentioned. This silence may perhaps be due to the fact that the author was a layman as seems clear from the account he gives of his doubts and acquiries in any incompleteness of the treatise may also be explained by the apparent loss of the latter end of the work as the sixty second reply terminates the extant text of the treatise abruptly and without any trace of peroration.


Introduction to the Fourth Volume (Part IV) (Contents of the Nasks)

Attentive readers of the sacred books of the east have had ample opportunities of becoming acquainted with the Zoroastrina scriptures so far as these have been preserved by the Parsis. In vol. Iv, xxiii and xxxi they have translations of all the texts extant in the original language of the Avesta excepting a few fragments which are not yet collected. And in vol. v, xviii and xxiv they have translations of later Pahlavi texts showing how faithfully the old doctrines and legends were handed down by the priests of Sasanian times to their immediate successors. But they will also have noticed that the translators of these texts are well aware of the fact that the texts themselves are mere fragments of the religious writings of the Zoroastrians which owe their preservation to the committed to memory by the priesthood such as the liturgy sacred myths and ceremonial laws. The objects of the present volume is to add to those fragments all the accessible information that can be collected from Iranian sources regarding the contents of the whole Zoroastrian literature in Sasanian times.

It has been long known that this literature was contained in twenty one Nasks or treatises named either from the nature of their content or from their initial words and each having one of the twenty one words of the Ahunavair attached to it as a kind of artificial reminder of their proper order and number while enumerating them. Very brief statements of the contents of each Nask Have also been accessible in manuscripts of the Persian Rivayats such as those translated in pp-419-438 of this volume and the existence of a much longer account of the nasks in the Dinkard was ascertained by Haug who published some extracts from it in 1870 when describing several of the Nasks in the Index to the Pahlavi Pazand Glossary. He was unable to do more on account of the defective state of all modern manuscripts of the Dinkaras in which a large portion of the text of the description of the Nasks in the eighth and ninth books is missing in various places without any hint of the omissions. These defects were owing to the abstraction of 52 folios of this part of the Iranian manuscript of the Dinkard after it was brought to India and before any copy of it had been written and even now two of these folis are still missing as stated in.


Introduction to the Fifth Volume (Part V) (Marvels of Zoroastrainism)

In the summary account of the spend Nask given in the eight book of the Dinkard chapter XIV it is stated in that many marvels owing to Zaratust are published therein just as there are some which collected and selected are noticed by the Dinkard manuscript. This statement evidently refers to the seventh book of the Dinkard which contains the legendary history of zaratust and his religion related as a series of marvels extending form the creation to the resurrection of mankind. A much briefer account of some of the same details occurs at the beginning of the fifth book of the Dinkard and appears to have been adridged from a compilation which was either derived partially from a foreign source or prepared for the use of foreign proselytes. A third compilation of similar legends is found among the selections of zad-sparam. And a careful translation of these three Pahlavi texts constitutes the Marvels of Zoroastrinism contained in this volume.

As the extent of Dk. VII is about 16,000 Pahlavi words it probably contains about four fifths of the details included in the spend Nask the Pahlavi version of which has been estimated in S.B.E vol. xxxvii to extend to 20,500 words. It says very little about Zaratust conferences with the sacred beings and gives no description of the other world and the way thither but it probably contains many verbatim extracts from other parts of the Pahlavi version of the spend Nask which appear however to have been previously collected in the exposition of the good religion an other MS that the Dinkard which is quoted as an authority in Dk. VII.

This seventh bok commences with a detailed statement of the descent of the glorious ruling dynasty from the primeval man Gayomard through his descendants the Pesdadian and Kayanian rulers to Kai-Vistasp. Among the individuals rarely mentioned elsewhere are the sacred being hadish.

Chapter II begins the legendary history of Zaratust with the descent of his glory from the presence of Auharmazd to the house in which Zaratusts mother was about to be bron and alarmed at her radiance the kavinga and karaps or ruling priests of the district oblighe her father to send her away to another valley where porushashpo resided to whom she was afterwards married and several legends are related in which both the archangels and archdemons are active agents which lead on to the birth of Zaratust thirty years before the end of the ninth miliennium of the universe and his complete genealogy is given.


Contents to the First volume


1 The Parsi Scriptures ix
2 The Pahlavi Language and Literature xi
3 The Bundahis xxii
4 The Selections of Zad-sparam xlvi
5 The Bahman Yast 1
6 The Shayast la-shayast lix
7 Concluding remarks lxvii
Bundhis 1
Selections of Zad Sparam 153
Bahman Yast 189
Shayast la Shayast 237
Index 497
Errata 434
Contents to the Second Volume


1 General Remarks xiii
2 The Dadistan Dinik xxii
3 The Epistles of Manuskihar xxv
4 The Appendix xxviii
Abbreviations used in this volume xxxi
Dadistan Dinik 1
1 Introductory 3
2 Why a righteous man is better than all creatures spiritual or worldly 11
3 why a righteous man is created and how he should act 15
4 Why a Righteous man is great 20
5 How Temporal distress is to be regarded 22
6 Why the Good suffer more than the bad in this world 23
7 Why we are created and what we ought to do 25
8 Whether good works done for the dead differ in effect from those ordered or done by themselves 26
9 How Far they differ 28
10 The Growth of good works during life 29
11 Whether the growth of a good work be as commendable as the original good work 30
12 Whether it eradicates sin equally well 30
13 Whether one is made responsible for all his sins and good works separately at the last account or only for their balance 31
14 The angels who take account of sin and good works and how sinners are punished 32
15 The Exposure of a corpse does not occasion the final departure of life and is meritorious 34
16 Whether the soul be aware of or disturbed by the corpse being gnawed 36
17 Reason for the exposure of corpses 38
18 How the Corpse and bones are to be disposed of 43
19 Whether departed souls can see Autharmazd and Aharman 44
20 Where the souls of the righteous and wicked go 46
21 The Daiti peak the Kinvad bridge and the wo paths of departed souls 47
22 Whether the spirits are distressed when a righteous man dies 50
23 How the Life departs from the body 51
24 Where a righteous soul stays for the first three nights after death and what it does next 53
25 Where a wicked soul stays for the first three nights after death and what it does next 55
26 The Nature of heaven and its pleasure 56
27 The Nature of hell and its punishments 57
28 Why ceremonies in honor of srosh are performed for the three days after a death 58
29 Why srosh must be reverenced separately from other angels 60
30 Why three sacred cakes are consecrated at dawn after the third night from a death 61
31 How a righteous soul goes to heaven and what it finds and does there 63
32 How a wicked soul goes to hell and what its finds and suffers there 70
33 The Position and subdivisions of hell 74
34 The two ways from the Daiti peak that of the righteous to heaven and that of the wicked to heel 76
35 The Continuance of mankind in the world till the resurrection 76
36 The Preparers of the renovation of the universe 77
37 The Contest of the good and evil spirits from the creation till the resurrection and the condition of creation after the resurrection 80
38 The Effect of doing more good works than are necessary for attaining to the supreme heaven 120
39 Reasons for wearing the sacred thread girdle 122
40 On the sacred shirt and thread girdle grace before and after eating and cleansing the mouth before the after grace 133
41 The Sin of apostasy and how to atone for it 136
42 the good works of him who saves others from apostasy 139
43 The Distance at which the fire can be addressed tne use of a lamp and the proper order of the propitiatory dedications when consecrating a sacred cake 141
44 Whether a skillful priest who is employed to perform ceremonies but is not officially the priest of the district should be paid a regular stipend 145
45 The Separate duties of priests and disciples 151
46 When a priest can abandon the priesthood to obtain a livelihood 153
47 Whether a priest who know the Avesta or one who understands the commentary be more entitled to the foremost place at a sacred feast 155
48 The Advantage and proper mode of celebrating the ceremonial 159
49 Whether it be lawful to bur corn and keep it long so as to raise the price for the sake of profit 174
50 Whether it be lawful to sell wine to foreigners and infidels 176
51 The Sin of Drunkeness and what constitutes immoderate drinking 178
52 Whether a man who bargains to deliver wheat in a month and takes a deposit is bound to deliver the wheat if its market price has risen enormously 180
53 Whether it be lawful to sell cattle to those of a different religion 182
54 Whether a man without a son can give away his property to one daughter on his death bed the laws of inheritance and when an adopted son must be appointed in such a case 183
55 Whose duty it is to order the ceremonies after a death 187
56 The Laws of adoption and family guardianship 188
57 Those who are fit or unfit for adoption 190
58 The Three kinds of adoption 191
59 The Least amount of property that requires the appointment of an adopted son 192
60 The Sin of not appointing an adopted son or of appointing a dishonest one 192
61 The Merit and demerit of family guardianship 193
62 The laws of inheritance 194
63 Whether it be lawful to seize property from foreigners and infidels 196
64 The Origins of gayomard Mashyath and mashyayoth 197
65 The Origins of next of kin marriage 199
66 Regarding the cost of religious rites and whether a priest’s fees can be reduced when others will take less 201
67 The Cause of the rainbow 210
68 The Cause of the phases of the moon 210
69 The Cause of eclipses 212
70 The Causes of river beds 213
71 What things happen through destiny and what through exertion 214
72 The Seven heinous sinners and the necessity of avoiding him who commits unnatural intercourse 216
73 Whether the stench of such intercourse reaches the sky 220
74 Whether that stench disturbs the archangels 221
75 Whether the angels raise such a sinner from the dead at the resurrection 222
76 Whether it be a good work to kill such a sinner 223
77 Why Such intercourse is a henous sin 224
78 Why adultery is heinous and how one can atone for it 227
79 The Sin of not repeating the full grace before drinking (when one is able to do so) and how one can atone for it 233
80 Regarding him who does not order ceremonies 237
81 About the Ceremonies for the living soul 237
82 About him who pays for ceremonies and him who takes the money without performing them 242
83 Whether a priest must undertake all religious rites 244
84 Whether gifts to the priesthood for ceremonies can be diminished or increased 245
85 The Advantage of increasing such gifts 246
86 The Harm of diminishing such gifts 248
87 Why it is good to give such gifts 249
88 About the cost of religious rites in pars 250
89 Whether when a man has once resolved to go into pars with gifts fro the priesthood it be lawful for him to send another man with the gifts 254
90 The Seven immortal rulers in the region of khvantras before the coming of the good religion 255
91 The Nature and material of the sky 259
92 The Course and benefit of the water of Arekdvister 262
93 Tirstar’s seizing of water from the ocean to rain to upon the earth and his conflict with apaosh 264
94 Conclusion 269
Epistles of Manuskihar 277
1 Introductory compliments acknowledging receipt of a complaining epistle 279
2 Deploring the false opinions in circulation owing to the fiend about the purification ceremonies 282
3 Excusing any defects in this epistle for various reasons detailed 286
4 Deprecating the disuse of the Bareshnum ceremony as decreed by his brother such disuse being contrary to scripture and the commentaries 292
5 Alluding to the one sided view of the opinions of the commentators adopted by the decree they had sent 298
6 Discussing the different statements of the commentators as to the number of purifiers and washings 301
7 Discussing the proper quantities of liquids to be used and the 300 pebbles 304
8 Regarding the stirring up of the bull’s urine when fetid as mentioned in the sakasdum Nask 309
9 Deciding that the commentary which teaches the most efficient mode of purification is to be followed when there are no special reasons for acting otherwise 312
10 Reserving other matters for special instructions to the priests but warning them not to obey the decree now denounced 316
11 Arranging for the enforcement of his decision until he can write further or come himself and concluding with benediction and date 320
Epistle II to his brother Zad Sparam
1 Acknowledging receipt of a former epistle and announcing the arrival of complaints about his brothers reprehensible decree 324
2 Disapproving of the decree and its mode of dealing with the commentaries whose exact agreement is as unlikely as the simultaneous occurrence of several particular conjunctions of the planets 331
3 Exhorting him not to seek for new rules but to adhere strictly to the old customs 336
4 Reasserting his opinions and protesting against the notion that the decree was in accordance with the practice of all the purifiers in Iran 341
5 Commenting upon the secrecy with which the decree had been prepared and the evil consequences resulting from it 343
6 Persuadign him to remain steadfast in the faith and threatening him if he should not 348
7 Explaining that he had previously written to Sirkan and would shortly come there himself but ordering the appointment of proper purifiers 350
8 Mentioning his general epistle to all of the good religion in Irn and describing the evil consequences of continued disobedience including the possibility of his won retreat to foreign lands 352
9 Giving further instructions for satisfying the disconnected and opposing the heterodox and concluding with out date 354
Epistle III. To all of the good religion in Iran for bidding the substitution of a fifteen fold washing for the Bareshnum ceremony 359
Appendix 367-455
Index 459
Corrections 479
Contents to the Third Volume


1 The Dina-I Mainog I Khirad xv
2 The Sikand Gumanik Vigar xxv
3 The Sei Dar xxxvi
Abbreviations used in this volume xlvii
Dina – I Mainog-I Khirad 1
1 Introducing the sage and the spirit of wisdom 3
2 How to preserve both body and soul including the fate of the soul after death whether righteous or wicked 9
3 What Liberality and truth gratitude and wisdom mindfulness and contentment are good for 26
4 The Nine chief good works divided into seven classes 26
5 The Ten happiest lands 27
6 The Ten unhappiest lands 28
7 The four grades of heaven and hell with the neutral region between them and the fate of the souls in each 29
8 How Autharmazd created the universe and Aharman corrupted it for 9000 years. The evil influence of the seven planets the good influence of the twelve signs of the zodiac and how far the good and evil can counteract each other. 32
9 The impossibility of going from region to region the substance of the sky and the mingling of the water in the earth 35
10 The impossibility of peace and affection between Aharman and Autharmazd 36
11 Wisdom without goodness and skill without wisdom are useless 37
12 Worldly treasure is not allotted so truly as spiritual on account of Aharman’s chieftains the seven planets but after death every one is judged according to his own deeds 37
13 Though animals knowledge is instinctive men obtain theirs only by toil because Aharman has concealed the results of good and evil and formed many false religions but the only true one is that taught by Zaratust 39
14 The Best protection friend supporter of fame helper of enjoyment wealth and pleasure 41
15 The poverty and opulence which are good and the characteristics of good and bad government 42
16 The Best food grace and fruit. The effects of wine on different tempers and when druck in moderation and in excess also why silk clothing is better for the body and cotton for the soul 45
17 The Pleasure that is worse than unhappiness 49
18 Why People disregard the changeableness of wordly things death the account of the soul and hell 49
19 Living in fear and falsehood is worse than death 50
20 The best and worst conversation for kings 50
21 The fate of men who are worldly scoffing idle, malicious lazy, false hearted and arrogant 51
22 How far worldly wealth can be acquired through exertion 54
23 The Impossibility of contending with destiny 54
24 Providence can over rule destiny but rarely does so because of Aharman;s evil doings 55
25 The Poorest of the rich and the richest of the poor 55
26 A Blind mind is worse than a blind eye and an ill informed is worse than an ill tempered man 56
27 The Several advantages resulting from the actions of Gayomand, Hoshang, Takhmorup Yimshed, as-I dahak, frasiyak, fredum, maushikhiar, kal kavad, sahm kai-us, siyavakhash, kal khusro kai loharsp and kao vistsp 57
28 The most forgiving strongest swiftest happiest and most miserable 66
29 What Must be most regarded and protected 66
30 The worst life and most unforeseeing man 67
31 The business of the three classes priests warriors and husbandmen 67
32 The Business of the fourth class the artisans 68
33 The worst ruler chieftain friend, kinsman wife, child and country 69
34 Aharman can hardly disturb a wise and contented man 70
35 The Seven kinds of men who are rich and the seven who are poor 70
36 The thirty sins 71
37 The Thirty three good works 73
38 Why worldly happiness is not allotted to the worthy who are accepted in heaven 75
39 Whose power is most seemly wisdom most complete disposition most faithful speech most proper goodness least friendship worst mental pleasure least, heart most seemly endurance most approvable and who is not faithful, what should be kept by every one and no one and also in conversation. Who cannot give evidence to whom obedience is due who must be minded and praised what must not be unexpected who is like authoarmasd and who like aharman 76
40 What is coldest warmest brightest darkest fullest emptiest most fruitless without superfluity incapable of deprival cannot be bought satisfies every one and satisfies no one. What Autharmad desires from men and what Aharman does and what is the end in the worldly and spiritual existences 79
41 The Mightiest man most dreadful road most perplexing account pleasantest tie most regrettable work and most unprofitable gift 81
42 The three kinds of man 82
43 The Spiritual armour and weapons requisite of attaining to heaven and escaping from hell 83
44 The Arrangement of the sky and earth flow of the water and resting place of the clouds where the winter demon is most predominant and the most undisturbed country 87
45 How Aharman deceives whence is his pleasure where he has a foundation whom he haunts and whence is his food 87
46 Aharman considers no injury complete unless he seized the soul 88
47 What is better than all wealth predominant over everything and from which no one can escape 89
48 The dwelling of the understanding intellect seed and wisdom in the body 89
49 The duties and motions of the stars Tirtar Vanand, Haptok ring the twelve signs of the zodiac and the rest the sun and the moon 90
50 The Opulent person who is fortunate and the reverse 93
51 Why a bad man sometimes succeeds and a good one fails 93
52 How the ceremonies and religion should be considered and what is requisite for the renunciation of sin 94
53 How the Homage and glorifying of the sacred beings are to be performed 95
54 Why an ignorant man will not learn 96
55 Why an ill natured man is no friend of the good nor an untalented man of the talented 97
56 The Uses of mountains and rivers 98
57 The Many advantages and uses of wisdom 98
58 Though an ignorant king is esteemed by man a wise poor man is more esteemed by the angels 105
59 The vices of the four classes priest, warriors husband men and artisans 105
60 The Man conversant with good and evil 106
61 Regarding Kangdes the enclosure formed by yim the body of sahm the abode of srosh the three legged ass the Hom tree gopataoshab the kar fish the griffon bird and kinamos 108
63 The Best good work which requires no trouble 113
Sikand-Gumanik Vigar 115
1 Introducing the subject and the author 117
2 Why Aharman advanced towards the light through of a different nature 122
3 Why Autharmazd did not use his omnipotence to repel Aharman 124
4 How the Stars came to be distributors both of the good produced by Autharmazd and of the evil produced by Aharman 127
5 Proof of the existence of a creator derived from the evident design in the creation 139
6 Further proofs of a similar description 146
7 Proof of the existence of an injurer from the provision made against him 150
8 Proofs of the same from the existence of evil 152
9 Proof of the existence of the opponent before the creation and of his appearance afterwards 162
10 Those who believe in the unity of creation also believe in a corrupting influence which is really another being 166
11 The Inconsistency of those who trace both good and evil to a sacred being whose attributes are incompatible with the latter with references to various scriptures 173
12 Other inconsistencies in the assertions of various sects regarding the sacred being 202
13 Criticism of the Jewish account of the creation of the universe and the fall of man as given in the old testament 208
14 Other Statement of the Old testament and Jewish tradition regarding the sacred being that tare inconsistent with his attributes 221
15 Criticism of many statements of the Christian scriptures showing their inconsistency and that some of them also admit the existence of a separate originator of evil 229
16 Criticism of some of the doctrines of the manichaens 243
Sar Dar 253-363
Contents to the Fourth volume


Introduction xxix
Abbreviations used in this volume xlix
Contents of the Nasks
Dinkard, Book VIII
1 Classification names and divisions of the Nasks 3
2 Sudkar Nask 10
3 Varstmansar Nask 12
4 Bako Nask 13
5 Damdad Nask 13
6 Nadar Nask 15
7 Pagag Nask 15
8 Rado Dad Aitag Nask 19
9 Baris Nask 20
10 Kaskisroo Nask 23
11 Vistasp Sasto Nask 23
12 Vastag Nask 25
13 Kitradad 25
14 Spend Nask 31
15 Bakan Yast Nask 34
16 Patkar Radistan Section of the Nikadum Nask 35
17 Zatamistan Section of the same 39
18 Reshistan Section of the same 41
19 Hamemalistan Section of the same 43
20 Fifth Section of the same 53
21 First Section of the Ganaba sar-nigad Nask 74
22 Second Section of the same is miscellaneous 77
23 Pasus haurvastan section of the same 81
24 Storistan Section of the same 84
25 Argistan Section of the same 86
26 Aratestaristan section of the same 86
27 A Miscellaneous Section of the same 90
28 Aerpatistan section of the Husparam Nask 92
29 Nirangistan section of the same 94
30 Goharikistan section of the same 97
31 A Miscellaneous section of the same 99
32 Another Section of the same 105
33 Another Section of the same 105
34 A Miscellaneous section of the same 106
35 Another Section of the same 109
36 Another Section of the same 112
37 Another Section of the same 114
38 One of the first 30 Section of the Sakadum Nask 121
39 Hakidakanistan section of the same 131
40 Ziyanaksitan Section of the same 136
41 Vakhishistan one of the last 22 section of the same 138
42 Varistan Section of the same 144
43 A Miscellaneous Section of the same 145
45 Hadokht Nask 166
46 Stod Yart Nask 169
Dinkard, Book IX
1 Introductory 172
2 Sudkar Nask Fargard 172
3 Same Fargard 2 175
4 Same fargard 3 175
5 Same Fargard 4 177
6 Same Fargard 5 178
7 Same Fargard 6 179
8 Same Fargard 7 180
9 Same Fargard 8 181
10 Same Fargard 9 185
11 Same Fargard 10 186
12 Same Fargard 11 189
13 Same Fargard 12 195
14 Same Fargard 13 196
15 Same Fargard 14 197
16 Same Fargard 15 199
17 Same Fargard 16 204
18 Same Fargard 17 206
19 Same Fargard 18 206
20 Same Fargard 19 209
21 Same Fargard 20 212
22 Same Fargard 21 219
23 Same Fargard 22 223
24 Same Fargard 23 226
25 Same Fargard 2 231
26 Same Fargard 3 232
27 Same Fargard 4 233
28 Same Fargard 5 234
29 Same Fargard 6 237
30 Same Fargard 7 241
31 Same Fargard 8 245
32 Same Fargard 9 252
33 Same Fargard 10 260
34 Same Fargard 11 263
35 Same Fargard 12 265
36 Same Fargard 13 269
37 Same Fargard 14 270
38 Same Fargard 15 273
39 Same Fargard 16 276
40 Same Fargard 17 282
41 Same Fargard 18 284
42 Same Fargard 19 289
43 Same Fargard 20 291
44 Same Fargard 21 294
45 Same Fargard 22 298
46 Same Fargard 23 302
47 Bako Nask Fargard 1 303
48 Same Fargard 2 308
49 Same Fargard 3 309
50 Same Fargard 4 311
51 Same Fargard 5 318
52 Same Fargard 6 322
53 Same Fargard 7 327
54 Same Fargard 8 340
55 Same Fargard 9 342
56 Same Fargard 10 345
57 Same Fargard 11 348
58 Same Fargard 12 353
59 Same Fargard 13 360
60 Same Fargard 14 364
61 Same Fargard 15 367
62 Same Fargard 16 370
63 Same Fargard 17 371
64 Same Fargard 18 373
65 Same Fargard 19 376
66 Same Fargard 20 379
67 Same Fargard 21 381
68 Same Fargard 22 383
69 A Selection from the whole Yast referring to the developer 384
Datails of the nasks from other sources 399
From the Selection of Zad Sparam 401
From the Dinkard Book III 406
From the Book IV 410
From Rivayat of Bahman Pungyah 418
From Rivayat of Kamah Bahrah 419
From Rivayat of Nareman Hoshang 428
From Rivayat of Barzu Qiyamu-d-din 433
From Din Vigirgard 438
Nask Fragments that are still extant 449
Index 489
Errata 501
Contents to the Fifth volume


Introduction ix
Abbreviations used in this volume xlviii
Marvels of Zoroastrainism
Dinkard Book VII
1 Descent of the glorious destiny 3
2 Parentage of Zaraturst 17
3 His Birth Childhood and youth till his conference 35
4 His Missions to the Karaps and vistasp conversion 50
5 Events in the last thirty five years of his life 73
6 Further events till the death of vistasp 77
7 Further events till end of Sasanian monarchy 82
8 Further events till end of Zaraturst’s millennium 94
9 Aushedas millennium 107
10 Aushedas man’s millennium 112
11 Soshans and the renovation 166
Dinkard Book V 119
1 Kai Loharasp at Jerusalem and descent of the religion 119
2 Parentage birth and life of Zaratust future apostels 122
3 Events after vistasp;s conversion and in later times 126
4 Descent of the Iranians the tribe having a gyemara 127
Selections of Zad Sparam
12 Two Old Legends of Spendarmad and of the Hero Stro 133
13 Parentage of Zaratust 138
14 Dempons try to injure him before and at his birth 140
15 Five Karap Brother opposed to Zaratust and his four brothers 143
16 One Karap tries to kill zaratust five times 144
17 Another Foretells his glorious destiny 147
18 His Father disagrees with him 148
19 And he disagrees with his father and the chief karap 149
20 Legends indicative of his good disposition 151
21 His going to confer with authoramzd 154
22 His Conferences with the archangels 159
23 Dates of conversion births and deaths 163
24 Five Dispositions of priests and ten admonitions 167
Index 171

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