The Padma Purana 10 Parts in Set (AITM Vol. 39 to 48): Ancient Indian Tradition And Mythology

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The Padma Purana 10 Parts in Set (AITM Vol. 39 to 48): Ancient Indian Tradition And Mythology
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The Purana is a class of literature that treats ancient religion, philosophy, history, sociology, politics, and other subjects. It is an Encyclopaedia of various branches of knowledge and ancient wisdom. It has been defined as a class of literature that contains material on the topics of Creation, Dissolution of Manus, Ages of Manus, Genealogies, and the History of glorious kings. For dealing primarily with these subjects it has been called Pancalaksana a little that was incorporated in the Puranas themselves and had become popular by the Fifth Century A.D., for it was included by Amarasimha in his lexicon 'Amarakosa'. But as the process of interpolation continued, the Pancalaksana definition was found inadequate. The Puranic redactors adopted a Dasalaksana definition that suited the contemporary text. Still, the dynamic forces were at work and the process of insertion, modification, and abridgment went on it was soon discovered that the Dasalaksana definition too fell short of an actual fact. It was found that the Puranas contained certain aspects that were not covered by any of the five or ten characteristics. Besides some of the characteristics covered by the Pancalaksana or Dasalaksana definition were not found in certain Puranas. In fact, the Purana as a class represents the different phases and aspects of the life of diverse ages. It is impossible to adopt a standard definition for the class of literary composition that contains heterogeneous phases and aspects. Moreover, a definition framed on the numerical basis of points is bound to be imperfect. The Puranas are divided into two classes the Mahapuranas and the Upapuranas. Each class consists of eighteen Puranas. Thus the number of Puranas is thirty-six.

Part I



This is the first part of the Padma Purana in English translation and the thirty-ninth volume in the series on Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology. It comprises the first thirty-three chapters of the first section called Srstikhanda or the Section on Creation of the Purana which is very huge in size. This Purana, as it appears in the Venkaesvara edition which this translation follows, consists of seven big sections or Khandas, namely, Srsti, Bhumi, Svarga, Brahma, Patala, Uttara and Kriyayogasara and is said to contain 55000 verses, though the actual number is much less. The translation of the whole Purana is planned to run into as many as ten volumes of the present size and may take some years for its completion.

The Padma Purana takes its name after the Primordial Lotus from which god Brahma, the Creator, was born. Dr. Deshpande has given a brief Khanda-wise summary of the Purana in his Introduction which appears in this volume. As the 'Contents' show, the reader will find herein and enjoy some very interesting accounts and stories, such as that of the churning of the ocean by the gods and demons, the destruction of Daksa's sacrifice by god Siva, the chopping-off of Brahma's fifth head by the same god, the drinking-up of the ocean by the sage Agastya and so on. A very amusing story appears in Chapter 13, of how Brhaspati, the preceptor of gods, impersonates Sukra, the preceptor of demons, and how he corrupts and demoralizes the latter by preaching heretical doctrines to them with a view to make the gods who were very often defeated by the demons in war, victorious over them. A good portion of this Part is also devoted to the glorification of Pukara as a sacred place of pilgrimage. A number of fasts and vows are recommended and the merits of observing the same are described in detail.

The project of this series was envisaged in 1970 by the late Lala Sundar Lal Jain of Messrs. Motilal Banarsidass. Thirty- nine volumes of the series including the present one have so far been published and others are in progress. Complete sets of eleven major Puranas viz, Agni Bhagawata, Brahma Brahmanda Garuda, Kurma, Linga, Narada, Siva, Vardha, and Vayu are already available many of which have been reprinted over and over again.

It is our pleasant duty to put on record our sincere thanks to Dr. R.N. Dandekar and the UNESCO authorities for their kind encouragement and valuable help which render this work more useful than it would otherwise have been. We are extremely grateful to Dr. N.A. Deshpande for translating the text. We are also thankful to all those who have been helpful in our project.



Originally the word Purana seems to have been understood in the sense of an 'old legend' but it is variously explained by different Puranas. YouPurana says that it is called Purana because it lives in the past or it breathes ancient times Brahmanda Purana says that it is so called since it existed in olden times. Padma Purana offers the following explanation: pint (V.2.53) It is called Purana because it desires or likes the past. It is, in other words, interested in the past, and there describes the past. Thus these explanations suggest that the Purana literature deals with the past. Matsya Purana (53.63), in fact, describes the Puranas as 'containing the records of past events'. It, therefore, appears that originally the term Purana signified an ancient tale or narrative. Such tales existed prior to Vedas. This seems to be the meaning of such statements as (Padma I.1.45). Various traditions also accept the sacredness of Puranas. Atharva Veda refers to Puranas in the singular at XI.7.24 and XV.6.10-11. Satapatha Brahmana (XI.5.6-8) also mentions Itihasa-purana as one word. It gives Purana the status of Veda. Taittiriya Arazyaka (11.10) refers to Puranas and Itihasas. Gautama Dharmasutra (XI.19), Kautilya's Arthajastra (V.6, p.257), and Stuctis like Mane (111.232) refer to Puranas. Mahabhjrata refers to Puranas both in the singular (at Adiparvan 5.2, antiparvan 208.5 etc.) and in the plural (at Striparvan 13.2). Mahabharata also mention by name Matsya Purana (in Vanaparvan 185.53). It is not proved beyond doubt whether Atharva Veda XI.7.24 refers to actual books by the word Purana. Thus it is not certain when actually Puranas as books came to be referred to. Puranas themselves say that originally there was one Purana only (Vdyu I.60.61 Linga Padma V.1.45) later on they came to be divided into 18 (Padma V.1. 51-52).

Amarasimha the author of the Amarakosa gives the following verse explaining the characteristics of a Purana.

This definition is also found in some of the Puranas like Vdyu 4.10-11 Varaha 2.4 Sarga creation Pratisarga - recreation after dissolution of the world Vamsa dynasties of gods the sun and the Moon and the patriarchs Manvantra the vast periods of time so called after a Manu Vamsa nucaritadeeds and history of the descendants of the solar lunar and other dynasties. But the Puranas do not fully conform to this description. Some contain many more topics while some barely touch these five topics at some length. It has been shown that these five characteristics occupy less than three percent of the extent of the Puranas that have come down to us. It is only Visnu Purana that largely conforms to this description but even it also contains other religious and social topics Dana (gifts) Vrata (religious observances). Tirtha (sacred places) and Sraddha (rites in honor of the dead ancestors) occupy a bulk of the contents (at least one lakh slokas) of the extant Puranas. The Pancalaksana description, therefore, does not properly cover their contents. So it is maintained that the Pancalaksana definition is applicable to Uparanas and the Dasalaksana definition to Mahapuranas. The Dasalaksana definition runs as follows.

In addition to the topics like sarga, this definition includes Vrtti (means of livelihood) Raksa (protection i.e. incarnation of God for protection of devotees) Samstha (four kinds of Laya) Hetu (jiva the soul that is subject to avidya and the collects karman) and apasraya (Brahman the refuge go Individual souls). Matsja Purana (53.66-67) says that in addition to these ten characteristics, Purai3as also deal with such topics as the glorification of Brahman, Visnu, the Sun, Rudra, preservation and dissolution of the world, the four goals of human life, like Dharma, Artha etc. But even this Matsya description is not adequate, since Puranas have undergone re-editions, due to the addition of fresh matter, substitution of existing matter, and omission and modification of it. As Haraprasad Sastri observes (Journal of the Behar [and Orissa] Research Society, XIV, p.329), "Anything old may be the subject of a Purana, and it covers all the aspects of life."

The characteristics like Sarga are discussed in various Puranas: Brahma (1.3), Brahm4nqa (11.8-13), Vayu (4-6), Padma (1.3) discuss Sarga. Brahma (2.32-37), V4nu (1.2ff) deal with Pratisarga. V4yu (99), Visnu (IV), Karma (1.20-25), Bhagocata (IX and XII) treat Vartias; while Visma (111.1.2), Karma (1.51) deal with Manvantaras.

Puranas are divided into two categories: Mahapuranas and Upapuranas. The number of Puranas is stated to be eighteen. As Kane observes, "The number 18 was probably due to the fact that the number is prominent in several connections as regards Mahabharata. The Bharata war was fought for 18 days, the total of the vast armies engaged in the conflict came to be 18 aksauhinis, the epic has 18 parvans, the Gita also has 18 chapters" History of Dharmasastra, Vol. V, p. 842) - This list of 18 Mahapuranas is given in almost every Purana (see e.g. Padma IV.100.51-54). The order of Puranas that is generally accepted by the tradition is: (1) Brahma, (2) Padma, (3) Vizu, (4) Vayu, (5) Bhagavata, (6) ,Naradiya, (7) Markandeya, (8) Agni, (9) Bhavisya, (10) Brahmavaivarta, (11) Varaha, (12) Linga, (13) Skanda, (14) Vamana, (15) Karma, (16) Matsya, (17) Ganscia, and (18) Brahmanda. Some place Devibhdgavata (or Kalinpurana) in place of (Vaisnava) Bhagavata and Siva in place of Vayu. But give is not looked upon as a Mahakuraza. Dealbhagavata has the following couplet to help memorize the names of the Puranas: refers to the two puranas the names of which begin with they are and similarly the word signifies the two Puranas the anmes of which begin with they are and the names of others Puranas are to be memorized similarly.

The controeversy like the claim of Siva Purana to be a Mahapurana is tired to be set at rest by taking their number to be 19 or 20.


Part II



Here is part II of the Padma Purana in English translation being the 40th volume in the series of Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology (AITM). It comprises the remaining 49 chapters viz. chaps. 34-82 of the first Srstikhanda or the section on creation which is now complete.

The reader would like to have some idea of the contents of this part at the outset. As unual this part also contains a number of well known narratives such as those of Rama Siva-Parvati Nrsimha Garuda, Ganesa the rape of Ahalya Visnu's incarnation in the from of Varaha the descent of Ganga etc. the birth stories of Kapila Vajranga Parvati Karitikeya and a number of demons such as madhu and Kaitabha are also found in this part. The long drawn war between gods and demons is described graphically in detail in several chapters some prominent generals of the latter mentioned by name being Kalanemi Taraka Namuci, Muci Kalakeya, Kaleya, tareya Devantaka Durdharsa Durmukha Madhu and Vrtra. Finally gods come out victorious with the slaying of Hiranyaksa by Visnu.

Several stories occurring in this part are related for the inculcation of religious and pious deeds as well as moral virtues e.g. adoration of parents devoton to the performance of duties pertaining to one's caste and stage of Sraddha etc. in this connection mention may be made of the Stories of Kings Sveta Aksaya and Danda of Muka Tuladhara Adroha Pativarta Vaisnava, Sevya, Mandavya etc.

The reader will also find here a number of hymns of gods Braham, Visnu, Siva, Ganapati the sun the Moon etc. composed for the benefit of the devotees. Rites are described for the appeasement of evil planets. Great merit has been attached to benevolent deeds such as digging wells and tanks planting trees constructing bridges drinking water to pilgrims and travelers etc. some chapters are devoted to the praise of Rudraksa Tulasi and Dharti. An interesting and noteworthy feature of this part is the mention of sinful tribes such as Nagnakas, Avackas, Kuvadas, Kharpas, Darunas probably some heretical religious sects of India and more importantly of foreigners such as hairless and beardless Yavanas cow eating Turuskas and Mlecchas obviously referring to the historical event of foreigners invasion of India especially by the Muslims. This event gave rise to the glorification and worship of cows which came to be considered as sacred as Agni and Brahmans all the Three together with the Vedas Spoken of as born form Brahma's Mouth.


Part III



This is the third part of the Padma Purana translated into English and the 41st Volume of the Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology series. Herein are included Chapters 1-90 of Bhumikhanda or the Section on the Earth which is the second of the seven sections into which the Purana is divided.

The reader would naturally expect, as the name 'Bhumikhanda' suggests, a description of the geography and history of the Earth in this section, but will actually find nothing like that. And this is true about all the sections. As a matter of fact, the names of the sections here as well as in the other Puranas are just arbitrary, having in the present shape no relevance to the contents. Perhaps in the remote past or originally they had a relevance but in the course of time their logical structure was lost and a lot of interpolation made them all alike dealing with similar topics irrespectively of the names assigned.

As usual, this part contains a number of well-known legends, especially those of Vena, Prthu and Yayati, and also the off- repeated myths of the slaying of the demons Bala and Vrtra, Hiranyakasipu and Hiranyaksa, the birth of Maruts, the anecdotes of Iksvaku's hunting, Diti's wailing and the like.

The section begins with the story of Sivasarman and his virtuous Sons whose devotion to parents is put to severe test and finally established as constant and firm. The glorification of devotion to parents (Pitrbhakti) is again taken up in chapters 63 and 84 and parents are given as high a status as that of a sacred place of pilgrimage in chapter 62. One will find allegorical description of body and soul in chapters 7 and 8. In the story of Suvrata (Ch. 11) four kinds of Sons nit described followed in the subsequent chapters by the enumeration of the basic virtues and the post-mortem status and suffering of the virtuous and sinners respectively. The virtue of dana (charity) is highly praised and treated of in detail along with a description of those who deserve it and the fruits of making gifts to Brahmanas and other deserving persons. The fruits of nityadana (regular charity) and naimittikadan (occasional charity) are described in detail separately.

Devotion to god Visnu is a recurring theme of this section though it is also said that all the gods of the Hindu trinity Brahma Visnu and Siva are equal. To propitiate Visnu a number of vows are enjoined and the recitation of a hymn containing a hundred names of the god is recommended as giving salvation in chapter 87. Yayati is mentioned as the greatest patron of the Vaisnava faith. It was during his reign that Vaisnavism enjoyed the greatest propularity.

Chapter 37 countains an adverse reference to Jainism. There a heretic who is none else but a follower of Jina is described who is dead against the vedic religion who by his radical doctrines turns king Vena away from the practice of Dharma and makes him a sinner leading ultimately to his total ruin.


Part IV



In this IV part of the Padma Purana are included the remaining chapters, 91-125, of the second section, Bhumikhanda, and the whole of the third section, Svargakhanda, having 62 chapters in all.

Our observation that the names of the sections have little relevance to the contents is further corroborated in this part. One may look, for example, at the contents of the Svargakhan4a. The second chapter of it treats creation and should logically go to the first section, Srstikhanda. Chapters 3-9 deal with the division of the earth into islands (dvipas), their mountains, rivers, countries and their population etc., which are more appropriately the topics of Bhumikhanda. Again, almost all of the remaining chapters of this section deal with the holy places of India, the merits acquired by visiting them, taking a bath, performing charities, offering pindas to the manes and worship to gods, and the codes of conduct laid down for the various castes and stages of life as well as do's and don'ts in respect of eating etc., which being very much 'earthly' matters logically belong to the Bhumikhanda.

Some conflicting statements about the size and structure of the Purana are also found in this part. For example, the Bhumikhanda, chapter 125, says that the number of verses in the Purana was 52000 in Treta, 22000 in Dvapara and 12000 in Kali, while the Svargakhatzc1a, chapter 1, gives a static figure of 55000. And similar is the case with the sections of the Purana. According to the Bhumikhanda, chapter 125, the Purana has five sections only, viz. Srsti, Bhumi, Svarga, Patala, and Uttara, thus leaving Brahma and Kriyayoga, whereas the Svargakhaz4a, Chapter 1, enumerates six sections, viz., Adi, BhUmi, Brahma, Patala, Kriya and Uttara. In this latter list the names of Srsti and Svarga (its own name!) are missing and an unfamiliar name 'Adi' appears. In the last chapter (62), however, the name for this section occurs as 'Ad-svarga', which would imply that this, i.e. Svargakhanda, was the first section of the Purana, thus refusing any locus standi to the Srstikhanda.

Now a few words about the contents. The reader will find some new and interesting anecdotes and stories here extolling holy places such as Pukara, showing the efficacy of a bath in the rivers Reva, Ganga etc., or of Visnu's name, and glorifying worship of some god, e.g. Visnu or Siva, or some virtuous conduct. Subahu's story shows that a gift of food, especially to a Brahmana, is the best charity, and is even superior to penance. The stories of Asokasundari (II. 102ff), Kamoda (II. 118ff), and of the five gandharva maidens (III. 22ff) have a good deal of dramatic interest. The story of J-Iemakm3dala and his two wicked sons (ITT. 30ff) shows the efficacy of the river Yamuna.

Pilgrimage to holy places is treated in great detail. Next in importance is the code of conduct prescribed for the celibate student, the householder, the anchorite, and the ascetic (III. 51ff). Do's and don'ts in respect of eating etc. are minutely discussed. Giving shelter and food to Brabmanas is considered highly meritorious. The gift of a cow to a brahmana at Prayaga is supposed to liberate not only the donor but also his son, wife, and servants. Worshipping brahmanas is shown to be superior even to bathing at a holy place. Mother is spoken of as the most venerable person and maligning others the greatest sin for which there is no atonement. A brahmana not responding to salutation is condemned as Sudra and one is advised not to salute him. Protection of even such insignificant insects as lice and bugs is prescribed.

Third in length is the description of the earth's geography which to a large extent seems to be a product of imagination rather than of a scientific survey, as is obvious from the highly exaggerated figures given therein. To take a few examples: The height of the Jambu tree which lends its name to the Jambudvipa, is said to be one thousand and a hundred yojanas (1 yojana= 8/9 miles); the Malyavat mountain measures fifty thousand yojanas; the span of human life in the Bhadrava country is said to be ten thousand years. The reader will find many more interesting descriptions here.


Part V



This is Part V of the voluminous Padma Purana and Volume 43 in the series of Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology. It comprises the whole of Section IV named Brahmakhanda (chapters 1-26) and part of Section V named Patalak-haic1a (chapters 1-67).

Let us here give a brief outline of the contents of this part. The Brahmana deals mainly with various aspects of Visnu Bhakti or devotion to the god Visnu. Out of its 26 chapters, as many as 19 preach devotion to Visnu directly in most and indirectly in a few, strengthening it with the help of short anecdotes and stories.

Devotion to Visnu is recommended as the quickest and surest way to liberation in this Kali age. No pilgrimage, no bathing in Ganga, in short, nothing else need be done by such a devotee. The characteristics of a devotee of Visnu are described in vv. 21-32 of chapter 1. The story of a thief named Dandaka shows how a solitary and insignificant act performed once destroyed even his gravest sins committed in the past, and the one of a pious Brahmana Vaikuntha and a rat shows how an accidental act of brightening the flame of a lamp burning in a Visnu temple on the part of the rat liberated it.

Observing a fast on a Jayanti day is strongly advised. The merits thereof and awful results incurred by its non-observance are described in detail. Six meritorious Jayantis are mentioned, Krsnajanmastami and Radhastmi being the two most prominent ones.

Ekadasi is said to be Visnu's day and the importance of fasting on this day is greatly emphasized, Various means Of winning the favor of the god Visnu are described in chapter 16.

Worship of Tulasi plant, offering its leaves to the deity, wearing a rosary of Tulasi wood around one's neck and a garland of Tulasi leaves are praised as highly efficacious in destroying one's sins and freeing oneself from the clutches of Yama's messengers. Uttering Visnu's name is regarded as highly meritorious and leads to Vaikuntha.

Some minor themes of this Section include deeds responsible for sonless ness, the birth of a daughter, of a good son, and for stillbirth; churning of the ocean as initiated by a curse of sage Durvasa who is reputed to become furious for very flimsy reasons; protection offered to a brahmana as highly meritorious, illustrated by the story of sage Vivamitra and how he averted a tragedy by offering himself as a victim in a Naramedha sacrifice in place of a brahmana boy; pacificator acts recommended for saving oneself from sins incurred by indulging in illicit intercourse and eating feces, drinking urine, sipping wine, etc.; and importance of keeping a promise.

The Patatakhaic1a devotes its first 68 chapters to the ever-well-known Ramayana story, out of which all but the last are included in this Part. This is a Vai5r3ava theme par excellence, as Rama was an incarnation of Visnu born for the divine purpose of eliminating the demons headed by Ravana.

Most of these chapters from Eight onwards describe Rama's Horse Sacrifice. Chapters 12-53 narrate a number of interesting episodes associated with the Horse's journey over the whole of the earth, including the various thrilling battles that Satrughna's army had to fight to free the Horse from the rival kings who for some reason came to challenge the supremacy of Rama. In chapter 54 the ascetic boy Lava binds the Horse, and chapters 60-66 describe the crushing defeat suffered by Satrughna's army at the bands of the two ascetic brothers Kusa and Lava.

Incidentally, chapters 55-59 describe the washerman's scandalous talk about Sita heard and reported to Rama by the spies and the consequent banishment of Sita and the birth of Kusa and Lava in the hermitage of sage Valmiki under his own loving care, who at an appropriate moment discloses the identity of the two sons of Sita to Rama who then owns them as his heirs. Sita after a lot of persuasion returns to Rama and the Horse Sacrifice is happily concluded even without the victim who miraculously gives up his equine form at Rama's touch and assumes a divine form.


Part VI



This forty-fourth volume in the series of Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology comprises the sixth part of the Padma-Purava containing the remaining chapters (68-117) of the fifth section of the Purana, viz. Patalakhanda.

Like the foregoing parts, this part also contains a number of interesting topics and a good variety of fascinating stories and anecdotes characterized by fine dramatic qualities and poetical fancy and flavor. The most dominating themes are the worship of god krsna or Visnu and the importance of the month of Vaisakha for Visnu worship, the worship of Siva and his Phallus, and the efficacy of sacred ash therein. Some striking observations of the Purana in this part ate noted here.

Krsna is the Supreme Being and the three gods of the Trinity are equal to a croreth of a croreth (i.e. insignificant) part of his feet.

The purification of Visnu's devotees is accomplished in twelve ways, viz, purification of the feet by going found the idol with devotion etc., purification of the hands by taking leaves and flowers etc. for his worship, purification of speech by describing his virtues etc., that of ears and eyes by listening to stories of Krspa, witnessing his festival etc., and of the head, of the heart, of the nose and so on in ways described in ch. 78.

Worship of Krsna is of five kinds, viz. Abhiganiana, Upadana, Toga, Svadhyaya, and liya as explained in ch. 78.

Thirty-two offenses against Visnu such as going to the Lord's temple in vehicles, drinking spirituous liquor etc. are described in ch. 79.

Five sacred rites are prescribed for a devotee of Visnu, such as marking the body with a mark of conch etc.

While the first three castes should worship in the manner laid down in the scriptures, women and Saudras who are exempted from this should propitiate Visnu by uttering his name.

In addition to the common flowers used in worship to please Visnu eight internal flowers are described in ch. 84 such as harmlessness control of senses etc. A few flowers are also mentioned.

Devotion is said to be of various kinds in ch. 85 viz (1) mental (2) of Speech and (3) of body and again (1) Secular (2) Vedic and (3) Spiritual.

The name of Ganga is said to be very efficacious in destroying signs. If a man at a distance of thousands of Yojanas remembers Ganga he even though a sinner obtains the highest position.

In ch.90 beauty good character truthfulness nobleness religious merit sweetness internal and external purity devotion to the husband service to him patience and affection have been called the eleven ornaments of a woman.

in ch. 94 it is said that there is no other worthily recipient than Brahmans there is no god higher than Visnu no holy place like Ganga no prayer like Gayatri no vow like that of Dvadasi no friend like wife no virtue like compassion no happiness like freedom no asrama like that of a householder no better conduct than truthfulness no greater pleasure than contentment and no better month than vaisakha.


Part VII



With the publication of this seventh part of the Padma Purana we have now made available forty-five volumes in the AITM series to the students and scholars of Indology. This part comprises chapters 1-81 of the sixth and the largest section, viz. Uttarakhand of the Padma Purana, consisting of a total of 255 chapters. Though the existing text of the Purana is complete in seven sections, the Kriyayogakhanda being the last, the present section in chapter 1, vv. 66-70 enumerates only five sections as belonging to the Purana, omitting thus two sections, viz, the Brahma and Kriyayoga. It appears that originally there were only five sections, the Uttarakhand, as the name itself indicates, being the last one, but later two more sections were added. As to the period of time when this was done, Winternitz opines that it was perhaps after the composition of the Bhagavata.

The major themes of this part are the birth, adventures, and ultimate defeat and death of the demon Jalandhara in chapters 3-18 and a description of the Ekadasi and other vows in chapters 30-70 and 77. There is a duplication of two names, viz. Putrada Ekadai and Kamada Ekadasi, as the former occurs as the title of two chapters, 41 and 55, and the latter as that of chapters 47 and 63. This could be taken as one of the indications of the multiple authorship of the Purana.

The reader will find the following information gleaned from this part, especially instructive.

The gods Siva and Visnu are not different but identical. "Visnu is Siva and Siva is Visnu." We can say that they are only functionally two but existentially one, and this has been emphasized by the Puranas frequently elsewhere also as an answer perhaps to the controversy arising from the appearance of divergent warring sects in the course of time.

Ridiculing gods, their images, and religious and sectarian practices associated with their worship due to egotism, particular sectarian learnings, etc. is strongly disparaged. A Brahmana indulging in this is declared to be a candela and one is said to undergo a very despicable birth for thousands of years in the form of worms in feces.

Muttering God's names is recommended as especially efficacious in this age for freeing oneself from sins and attaining the highest spiritual position. A man obtains by repeating the names of Visnu in the Kali age what he obtains by meditation in the Krta age by performing sacrifices in the treated age and by worshipping Visnu in the Dvapara age. The thousand said that a thousand names are equal to the single name Rama.

The authors of the Purana have a good sense of humor as is proved on many occasions when we meet a ludicrous or incongruous situation in this part as well as elsewhere. God Brahma is usually made a laughingstock on account of his beard. Once Brahma takes the child Jalandhara in his lap when the latter catches his beard which the former is unable to free from his hand this naturally makes the child's father Ocean laugh. In another situation, Siva fashions a disc out of the tejas contributed by gods and sages for the destruction of the mighty demon Jalandhara. Siva gives that disc into Brahma's hands for inspection and appreciation. He sees that the beard of Brahma is burnt by the sparks issuing from the powerful weapon laughs and takes it quickly back. Brahma is again made a butt of laughter when Kirtimukha a hungry attendant of Siva proceeds to eat Brahma but is warded off by Siva. Perhaps this indicates that the cult of this god of the Trinity had already declined and lost its popularity long before this Purana was composed while the Saiva and Vaisnava cults were still very much thriving.

There are so many passages in this part that show us against the popular belief of there being one Nandin that at least two Nandins existed in Siva's entourage one the chief of Siva's attendants and a general of his army and the other the bull Siva's vehicle. Siva said to Nandin the chief of his attendants. You should kill the brave great demon Jalandhara in Battle again. Then hearing the words of Parvati Siva said to Virabhadra quickly make ready my bull.


Part I
1. Introductory 1
2. Contents of the Section on Creation 7
3. Kinds of Creation 17
4. The Birth of Laksmi 31
5. Destruction of Daksa's Sacrifice 40
6. Birth of Devas, Daityas, Birds and Serpents etc. 46
7. Description of Manu Periods 51
8. Description of the Solar Race 60
9. General Rules of Sraddha Performance 71
10. The Greatness of Pitrs 86
11. A List of Sacred Places 96
12. The Dynasty of Yadu 103
13. The Deeds of the Avatara (Incarnation) 113
14. Chopping-off of Brahma's Head by Rudra 141
15. Importance of Dwelling at a Sacred Place 157
16. The Acquisition of Gayatri 185
17. Savitri's Curses and Gayatri's Boons 199
18. The Greatness of Nanda-Praci 220
19. Conversation of the Seven Sages 250
20. The Rules of Ablution 276
21. The Greatness of Puskara and Some Important Vows 290
22. On Vows 316
23. The Vow for Prostitutes 330
24. The Vow of Angaraka Caturthi 341
25. The Vow of Adityasayana 346
26. The Vow of Rohinicandrasayana 350
27. Installation of Lakes etc. 353
28. The Planting of Trees 359
29. The Vow Called Saubhagyasayana 362
30. Origin of Visnu's Steps 367
31. The Account of Sivaduti 383
32. Descent of a Holy Place 395
33. Rama's Visit to Markandeya's Hermitage 408
Part II
34. The Gift of Brahmanda 425
35. The Killing of a Sudra Ascetic 460
36. Conversation between Rama and Agastya 468
37. Rama's Abstaining from the Performance of Rajasuya 478
38. The Installation of the Image of Vamana 490
39. The Birth of the Lotus 505
40. The Army of Demons 517
41. The Rise of the Lotus and the War between Gods and Demons 532
42. Taraka's Victory in the War between Gods and Demons 556
43. Gauri's Marriage 565
44. The Birth of Kumara and the Death of Taraka 605
45. The Manifestation of Narasimha 623
46. Purificatory Rites of a Brahmana 636
47. The Birth of Garuda 655
48. Importance of Bull (and Cow) 669
49. Good Conduct 685
50. The Account of the Five 696
51. The Story of a Faithful Wife 723
52. On Women's Conduct 730
53. Non-covetousness of a Sudra 740
54. The rape of Ahalya 746
55. The Birth of Lauhitya 750
56. The Account of the Five 755
57. In Praise of (Digging a) Tank etc. 759
58. In Praise of Planting Trees etc. 762
59. In Praise of Rudraksa 767
60. In Praise of Tulasi 785
61. Glorification of Tulasi 798
62. In Praise of the Ganga 801
63. A Hymn to Ganapati 812
64. Another Hymn to Ganapati 814
65. The Slaying of Kalakeya 816
66. The Slaying of Kaleya 825
67. The Slaying of Bala and Namuci 827
68. The Slaying of Muci 831
69. The Slaying of Tareya 831
70. Devantaka, Durdharsa and Durmukha Slain 833
71. The Second Namuci Slain 835
72. The Slaying of Madhu 837
73. The Slaying of Vrtra 840
74. The Slaying of Tripura's Son 843
75. The Hymn of Victory at the End of War between Gods and Demons 846
76. The Exposition of Merit 854
77. The Vow of Saptami in Honour of the Sun 866
78. The Pacification of the Sun 875
79. The Story of Badresvara 880
80. The Worship of the Moon 884
81. The Birth of Bauma and His Worship 886
82. The Worship of the Planets 891
Part III
1. The Story of Sivasarman 897
2. Life is Restored to Vedasarman 902
3. The Heroic Deed of Visnusarman 904
4. Somasarman's Dvotion Put to Serve Test 909
5. The Consecration of Indra 913
6. Diti's Wailing 920
7. Account of the Body 923
8. Account of the Soul 930
9. Instructions to Diti 938
10. The Practice of Penance by Demons 939
11. The Story of Suvrata 943
12. Dialogue between Somasarman and Sumana 946
13. Sumana Explains Ten Basic Virtues 955
14. Sumana Describes the Death of the Virtuous 958
15. The Death of Sinners 962
16. The Death and Post-mortem State of Sinners 963
17. The Story of Somasarman's Previous Birth 965
18. The Account of Somasarman's Birth in a Brahmana family 969
19. Somasarman's Eulogy of Visnu 972
20. The Birth of Suvrata 977
21. Suvrata's Devotion to Visnu 981
22. Dharmangada Born as Suvrata 984
23. The Slaying of the Demon Bala 988
24. Vrtra Duped 991
25. The Killing of Demon Vrtra 995
26. The Origin of Maruts 997
27. Coronation of the Kings 999
28. The Story of Prthu 1101
29. The Story of Prthu (Contd.) 1009
30. Sulobha and Sapharaha; Susankha and Sunitha 1014
31. The Account of Suvrata 1019
32. Anga Gets a Boon from Vasudeva 1021
33. Sunitha's Story 1026
34. Sunitha's Problem 1029
35. Rambha Helps by a Suggestion 1032
36. Sunitha Gets Married and Vena is Born 1033
37. A Heretic Meets Veena 1037
38. The End of Vena's Reign 1042
39. On Gifts and Worthy Recipients of Gifts 1045
40. The Fruit of Occasional Charity 1053
41. The Story of Sukala 1056
42. Iksvaku Goes Ahunting 1062
43. The Boar Gives a Tough Fight to Iksvaku 1067
44. The Boar Dies Fighting 1073
45. The Female Hog Fights Back 1074
46. The Story of Rangavidyadhara 1076
47. The Story of Vasudatta and His Daughter Sudeva 1081
48. The Story of Padmavati 1085
49. Padmavati Succumbs to Gobhila's Fraudulent Approach 1087
50. Padmavati Is Grief-stricken 1090
51. Padmavati Returns to Her Husband's Place 1095
52. Sudeva Goes to Heaven 1098
53. Sukala's Sickning Description of the Body 1101
54. Sukala Gets Prepared For the Showdown 1108
55. Indra Tries to Dissuade Kama 1110
56. Satya & Dharma Come to Sukala's Help 1112
57. The Trap Is Laid For Sukala 1115
58. Sukala Wins 1117
59. Religious Observances Without One's Wife Are Fruitless 1121
60. Sukala's Story Ends 1123
61. Pippala's Penance 1125
62. Parents As Sacred Places of Pilgrimage 1129
63. Merit Resulting from Service of Parents 1135
64. Matali's Discourse on Old Age 1137
65. Matali on Why the Body Is Left Behind 1144
66. Matali on the University of Suffering 1144
67. Matali on Three Kinds of Sin 1159
68. The Fruit of Righteous Deeds 1167
69. Righteous Acts Enjoyed by Siva (Sivadharmas) 1169
70. Sinners in Hell 1171
71. Identity of Brahma, Visnu and Siva 1172
72. Yayati's Reluctance to Part With the Body 1174
73. The Efficacy of Visnu's Name 1177
74. Popularity of Visnu Cult during Yayati's Rule 1178
75. Yayati's Subjects became Deathless by the Grace of Visnu 1180
76. Dharmaraja Rendered Jobless 1183
77. Yayati Yields to Passion 1185
78. Puru Gives His Youth to Yayati 1193
79. Youthful Yayati Enjoys with Asrubindumati 1198
80. Yadu Refuses to Kill His Mothers 1201
81. Destiny is Irresistible 1202
82. Yayati Visits the Divine Worlds 1207
83. Yayati Visits the Divine Worlds 1209
84. Glorification of Devotion to Parents 1214
85. The Story of Cyavana : Kunjala : Divyadevi 1216
86. Divyadevi As Citra in Her Former Birth 1220
87. 'A Hundred Names of Visnu' 1227
88. Divyadevi Goes to Visnu's Heaven 1230
89. The Miraculous Bath in the Water of Manasa Lake 1233
90. The Powers of the Holy Places 1237
Part IV
91. Vidura, Candrasarman, Vedasarman and Vanjula 1241
92. The Greatness of Reva 1243
93. Vijvala Narrates His Experience 1246
94. In Praise of Making Gift of Food 1248
95. Deeds Which Lead to Heaven 1252
96. Good and Bad Deeds and the Fate of the Performer 1255
97. Subahu Eats His Own Flesh 1258
98. The Vasudeva Hymn 1266
99. God Visnu Appears to Subahu 1272
100. Vena Asks to Hear More about Kunjala 1276
101. Kapinjala's Narration 1277
102. Asokasundari Is Born 1280
103. Asokasundari Is Saved and Ayu Gets Boon 1286
104. Indumati's Dream 1295
105. Nahusa is Born 1297
106. Indumati's Lamentations on the Loss of Her Child 1301
107. Narada Assures of Nahusa's Return 1302
108. Vasisstha's Instruction to Nahusa 1303
109. Vidvara, a Kinnara, Dispels Askokasundari's Apprehensions 1306
110. Nahusa Gets Divine Weapons from Gods 1310
111. Nahusa Enters Mahodaya, the City of Hunda 1311
112. Asokasundari has a Glimpse of Nahusa 1312
113. Rambha Acts as Asokasundari's Messenger 1313
114. The Fight between Nahusa and Hunda Starts 1316
115. Hunda is Killed in the Battle 1318
116. Nahusa Marries Asokasundari 1321
117. Nahusa's Consecration 1323
118. The Story of Kamoda 1325
119. The Birth of Kamoda 1328
120. Narada on Dreams 1331
121. The End of Vihunda 1334
122. Dharmasarman's Account 1338
123. Kunjala's Story : A Preceptor Is a Holy Place 1340
124. Prthu's Righteous Rule 1345
125. The Merit of Listening to or Reciting The Purana 1346
1. Suta Romaharsana Agrees to Narrate Padma Purana 1350
2. The Creation of the Elements, Prakrti etc. 1352
3. Various Mountains and Regions of the Earth 1354
4. Uttarakuru, Bhadrasva, Malyavat 1359
5. Ramanaka, Hiranmaya, Airavata 1361
6. Bharatavarsa : Its Rivers and Regions 1363
7. Span of Life in the Four Yugas 1366
8. Sakadvipa : Mountains, Rivers and Countries 1367
9. Salmalika, Kraunca, Kusa and Puskara Dvipas and Their Mountains 1370
10. Dialogue between Narada and Yudhisthira 1372
11. Puskara, the Holiest of Holy Places 1374
12. Visit to Some Holy Places and Its Merit 1377
13. The Greatness of Narmada 1378
14. Sages Pray to God Siva for Protection from Demon Bana 1381
15. The Greatness of Amarakantaka 1384
16. Kaveri Samgama Tirtha 1389
17. Narmada and the Holy Places on Her Northern Bank 1391
18. More Tirthas on the Bank of Narmada 1393
19. Suklatirtha 1400
20. Naraka, Kapilatirtha, Rsitirtha, Ganesvara, Bhrgutirtha, Somatirtha etc. 1403
21. Vihagesvara, Narmadesvara, Asvatirtha, etc. 1408
22. The Story of Five Gandharva Maidens 1412
23. The Stage Lomasa Comes to the Help of Goblins 1419
24. Pingatirtha, Narmada, Dvaravati, Timi, etc. 1422
25. Vitasta, Malada, Manimanta, Brahmavalaka, etc. 1425
26. Kuruksetra, Pariplava, Savikini, Kotitirtta, etc. 1427
27. Kanyatritha, Saptasarasvata, Prthudaka, Sannihiti, etc. 1434
28. Dharmatirtha, Sakambhari, Rathavartta, etc. 1440
29. Kalinditirtha : Efficacyof Yamuna 1443
30. Hemakundala and His Two Sons 1446
31. Vikundala's Dialogue with the Devaduta 1449
32. Sugandha, Arundhativata, Sindhuprabhava, etc. 1463
33. The Merits of Varanasi 1466
34. The Greatness of Krttivasesvara 1470
35. The Greatness of Kapardin 1472
36. The Greatness of Madhyamesa 1476
37. Other Holy Places of Varanasi 1477
38. Gaya and Other Holy Places 1478
39. Savidya Sandhya, Lauhitya, Karatoya, etc. 1483
40. Markandeya Recommends Pilgrimage to Prayaga 1491
41. The Greatness of Prayaga 1494
42. Importance of Givingh a Cow at Pragyaga 1496
43. The Fruit of Visiting Pragyaga 1498
44. The Fruit of Bathing in the Confluence at Prayaga 1501
45. Agnitirtha, Viranjana, Svargatirtha, etc. 1503
46. More about Merits Derived from Pilgrimage 1506
47. Prayaga Again 1508
48. Brahma, Visnu and Siva Dwell in Prayaga 1509
49. Krsna Recommends Pilgrimage to Prayaga 1510
50. Visnu's Name the Greatest Holy Place 1512
51. Karmayoga or Rules of Conduct 1514
52. Rules for Shipping Water 1519
53. Rules of Conduct for a Celibate Student 1523
54. Rules for the Householder 1529
55. Don't's for a Twice-born Householder 1532
56. Do's and Don't's in Eating 1539
57. Acts of Charity Prescribed for a Householder 1542
58. Code of Conduct for an Anchorite 1547
59. Rules of Conduct for a Sannyasi 1550
60. Restraints for a Sannyasi 1552
61. Devotion to Visnu the Best Way to Salvation 1555
62. The Meri of Reciting the Padma Purana, Svargakhanda 1562
Part V
1. Who Are the Devotees of Visnu? 1565
2. The Importance of Besmearing the Floor of Visnu's Temple 1568
3. The Importance of Offering a Lamp to Visnu 1571
4. The Importance of Fasting on the Jayanti Day 1573
5. The Deeds for Which one Becomes Sonless 1577
6. Acts Leading to Vaikuntha 1580
7. The Greatness of Radhastami 1583
8. Prelude to the Churning of Ocean 1586
9. The Churning Starts 1588
10. The Birth of Laksmi 1590
11. The Importance of Observing a Vow in Honour of Laksmi 1592
12. Merit Earned by Protecting a Brahmana 1598
13. The Importance of the Vow of Janmastami 1602
14. The Greatness of a Brahmana 1608
15. The Importance of Ekadasi 1611
16. How to Win Favour of Visnu 1615
17. The Importance of Water Flowing from Visnu's Feet 1617
18. Purificatory Acts for One Guilty of Illegitimate Intercourse 1619
19. Purificatory Acts for Other Sins 1621
20. The Greatness of the Worship of Radha-Damodara 1624
21. Restrictions While Observing the Kartika Vow 1626
22. The Greatness of Tulasi 1629
23. The Importance of Visnupancaka 1632
24. In Praise of Giving Gifts 1635
25. The Importance of Uttering Visnu's Name 1638
26. The Importance of keeping Promise 1642
1. Rama Sees Nandigrama from Puspaka 1646
2. Rama Meets Bharata 1649
3. Rama Enters Ayodya 1652
4. Rama's Consecration 1655
5. The Coming Sage Agasti 1658
6. Agastya Begins Ravana's Story 1662
7. Elimination of Ravana by Visnu 1666
8. Agastya Advices Rama to Perform Horse Sacrifice 1668
9. Instructions in Religious Practices 1671
10. Rama Appoints Satrughna as the Protector of the Horse 1676
11. The Asvamedha Horse Is Let Loose 1682
12. Ahicchatra City, King Sumada and Kama 1688
13. Satrughna Enters Ahicchatra City 1694
14. The Cyavana Episode 1699
15. Cyavana's Penance and Enjoyments 1703
16. The Horse Goes to Cyavana's Hermitage 1707
17. Arrival of a Brahmana Ascetic 1711
18. A Miraculous Happening 1716
19. Ratagriva Goes on a Pilgrimage to Purusottama 1718
20. The Importance of Gandaki 1723
21. Purusottama Appears to the King in the Guise of an Ascetic 1729
22. The Greatness of Nila Mountain 1732
23. Damana Fights with Pratapagrya 1737
24. Puskala Defeats Damana 1742
25. Subahu Gets Ready with His Army in the Kraunca Array 1746
26. A Fierce Fight Between Laksminidhi and Suketu 1748
27. Killing of Citranga 1753
28. Subahu's Defeat 1756
29. King Subbahu Surrenders to Satughna 1761
30. Janaka Releases Sinners from Hell 1765
31. King Ratmbhara Is Blessed with a Son 1770
32. Satyavan Meets Satrughna 1774
33. Satrughna's Army gets Ready to Fight Vidyunmalin 1776
34. Vidyunmalin Killed in Battle 1780
35. Dialogue between Lomasa and Aranyaka 1785
36. Lomasa Narrates the Deeds of Rama to Aranyaka 1791
37. Sage Aranyaka Goes to Visnu's Heaven 1797
38. Getting Back the Horse from the Possession of an Underwater Female 1801
39. The Seizure of the Horse by Viramani's Son 1806
40. Satrughna Resolves to Fight Against Viramani 1810
41. Rukmagada Is Defeated by Puskala 1814
42. Viramani Is Defeated 1816
43. Defeat of Puskala and Satrughna 1822
44. Hanumat on the Drona Mountain 1825
45. Sri Rama Appears on the Battlefield 1831
46. Viramani Surrenders the Horse to Sri Rama 1835
47. The Sacrificial Horse Develops Stiffness 1837
48. The Horse Is Relieved of Stiffness 1841
49. King Suratha Seizes the Horse 1846
50. Angada Delivers Satrughna's Message to Suratha 1851
51. Hanumat Frees Puskala from Campaka 1855
52. King Suratha Wins the Battle 1859
53. Rama Frees the Bound Horse 1864
54. Lava Binds the Sacrificial Horse 1867
55. The Observation of the Spices 1869
56. Rama Seeks Bharata's Advice 1875
57. The Washerman's Former Birth 1879
58. Laksama Leaves Sita in the Forest 1883
59. The Birth of Kusa and Lava 1888
60. Lava Defeats the Army and Kills the General 1894
61. Hanumat Falls Unconscious 1898
62. Lava Becomes Unconscious 1902
63. Kusa's Victory 1905
64. Rama's Army Revives 1910
65. Sumati Describes the Adventurous Events to Rama 1915
66. Singing of Ramayana by Kusa and Lava 1920
67. The Commencement of the Sacrifice 1932
Part VI
68. The Horse Sacrifice Ends 1939
69. The Story of Krsna Begins 1941
70. A Description of Srikrsna 1950
71. The Greatness of Radhakrsna 1954
72. Devotees of Krsna Born in Gokula as Cowherdesses 1961
73. The Greatness of Mathura 1970
74. Arjuna's Wish and Its Fulfilment 1974
75. Narada's Experience 1987
76. The Greatness of Krsna 1991
77. A Description of Krsna 1992
78. Worship Prescribed for a Devotee of Visnu 1997
79. Do's and Don't's for a Devotee of Visnu 2001
80. Monthwise Rites Prescribed for a Visnu Devotee 2005
81. Mantracintamani for Devotees of Krsna 2010
82. The Greatness of Vrndavana 2015
83. Krsna's Love Sports in Vrndavana 2021
84. Meditation of the Lord 2029
85. Greatness of Vaisakha 2036
86. Acts to be Performed in Vaisakha 2041
87. Stuble Are the Ways of Dharma 2045
88. Sumana on Kinds of Sons 2050
89. Devasarman's Life in the Previous Birth 2052
90. An Account of Devasarman's Good Deeds of Previous Birth 2057
91. Happy End of Devasarman's Story 2061
92. Citra's Story 2062
93. Divyadevi Is Married to Virasena 2070
94. The Means of Destroying Sins 2072
95. More Rites and Rituals to be Observed in Vaisakha 2083
96. Deeds Leading to Hell and Heaven 2094
97. More Sinful and Meritorious Deeds 2104
98. The Greatness of Vaisakha 2111
99. Kasyapa's Advice to King Mahiratha 2119
100. Carnal Enjoyment Is Sinful 2125
101. King Mahiratha Goes to Visnu's Adobe 2128
102. King Mahiratha Gives Part of His Merit to the Sufferers in Hell 2132
103. How to Meditate on Krsna in Vaisakha 2134
104. Dialogue between Sambhu and Rama 2140
105. The Importance of Sacred Ash 2153
106. A Sinful Brahmana Becomes an Attendant of Virabhadra 2171
107. Virabhadra's Heroic Deed 2179
108. How to Prepare Scared Ash 2186
109. Jabali Recommends Phallus Worship to the Brahmana Iksvaku 2192
110. How a King Became Siva's Attendant Agnisikha 2200
111. The Sinner Vidhrta Goes to Siva's Adobe 2207
112. The Story of Sona and His Wife Kala 2211
113. The Requirements for Narrating a Purana 2221
114. Dialogue between Siva and Rama 2226
115. Reciting and Listening to Puranas Is Meritorious 2260
116. Narration of the Ramayana of a Former Kalpa 2267
117. Fruit of Worship by Justly Procured, Stolen and Impaired Material 2294
Part VII
1. The Contents of the Section in Brief 2313
2. Narayana Grants Boons to Rudra 2318
3. Jalandhara Is Born and Blessed by Brahma 2320
4. Jalandhara's Marriage and Concentration 2323
5. War between Gods and Demons 2327
6. Death of Demon Bala 2333
7. Laksmi Intervenes in the Fight between Visnu and Jalandhara 2336
8. Conditions During Jalandhara's Rule 2342
9. The Creation of a New Powerful Weapon by Siva 2344
10. Jalandhara's Messenger Rahu meets Siva 2347
11. Siva's Attendants Fight the Demons Off 2351
12. Siva Arrives on the Battlefield 2355
13. Jalandhara Disguised as Siva goes to Parvati 2360
14. Visnu Creates Illusion for Vrnda 2363
15. Vrnda Goes to Heaven 2369
16. Jalandhara Gives up His Disguise 2373
17. Sukra is Confined by Krtya inside Her Vulva 2376
18. Jalandhara Is Killed 2382
19. A Description of Srisaila 2392
20. The Story of Sagara 2394
21. The Greatness of Haridvara 2396
22. An Euology of Ganga, Yamuna, Prayaga 2398
23. The Importance of Tulasi 2404
24. The Importance of Prayaga 2407
25. A Three-night Tulasi Vow 2408
26. Gift of Food Praised 2412
27. Constructing Tanks, Planting Trees etc. 2413
28. Merit Coming From Exposition of a Sacred Text 2417
29. The Importance of Gopicandana 2420
30. The Greatness of the Vow of Lamp 2422
31. The Vow of Janmastami 2430
32. A Gift of Land Is Best 2433
33. A Hymn to Sani as a Remover of Trouble 2438
34. The Account of Trisprsa 2442
35. The Vow of Unmilani 2448
36. The Vow of Paksavardhini 2453
37. Keeping Awake on Ekadasi and Dvadasi 2456
38. The Origin of Ekadasi and Killing of Demon Mura 2462
39. The Importance of the Moksada Ekadasi 2471
40. Saphala Ekadasi 2475
41. Putrada Ekadasi 2478
42. The Vow of Sattila Ekadasi 2481
43. Jaya Ekadasi 2485
44. Vijaya Ekadasi 2489
45. Amalaki Ekadasi 2491
46. Papamocani Ekadasi 2496
47. Kamada Ekadasi 2500
48. Varuthini Ekadasi 2503
49. Mohini Ekadasi 2505
50. Apara Ekadasi Ekadasi 2508
51. Nirjala Ekadasi Ekadasi 2510
52. Yogini Ekadasi 2514
53. Devasayani Ekadasi 2517
54. Kamika Ekadasi 2519
55. Putrada Ekadasi 2522
56. Aja Ekadasi 2525
57. Padma Ekadasi 2526
58. Indira Ekadasi 2530
59. Papankusa Ekadasi 2532
60. Rama Ekadasi 2534
61. Prabodhini Ekadasi 2538
62. Kamala Ekadasi 2543
63. Kamada Ekadasi 2546
64. The Importance of Chaturmasya 2548
65. Chaturmasya Vow to be Concluded Properly 2555
66. Propitiation of Yama 2557
67. The Importance of Gopicandana 2563
68. The Greatness of Visnu's Devotees 2564
69. The Vow of Sravana Dvadasi 2565
70. The Vow of Nadi-triratra 2569
71. Visnu's One Thousand Names 2572
72. Merit of Reciting the Visnusahasranama 2597
73. Ramaraksa Stotra 2598
74. Merit Earned Through Gifts 2599
75. The Greatness of Gandika 2602
76. The Hymn Causing Prosperity 2603
77. The Vow of Rsipancami 2606
78. The Hymn called 'Apamarjana' 2610
79. The Importance of Apamarjana 2616
80. The Greatness of Visnu 2618
81. The Importance of Ganga 2629
82. The Greatness of Visnu's Devotees 2633
83. The Swing Festival 2636
84. The Damanaka Festival 2638
85. The Sayana Festival of Visnu 2641
86. The Investiture of the Scared Thread 2643
87. Monthly Offering of Flowers to Visnu 2646
88. Dialogue Between Satyabhama and Krsna 2648
89. An Account of Satyabhama's Former Birth 2652
90. Kartika Best among Month's and Ekadasi among Days 2654
91. The Greatness of Prayaga 2656
92. Rules for the Vow of Kartika 2658
93. The Bath Rite 2660
94. Restraints during the Kartika 2663
95. Bringing the Vow to Conclusion 2665
96. The Birth of Jalandhara 2667
97. The Conquest of Amaravati by Jalandhara 2670
98. Visnu Promises not to Kill Jalandhara 2672
99. Rahu Acts as Messenger of Jalandhara 2675
100. Siva's Attendants Fight the Demons off 2678
101. The Fight Goes on 2680
102. Jalandhara Plays a Trick 2682
103. Vrnda Curses Visnu 2684
104. The End of Jalandhara 2687
105. The Greatness of Dhatri and Tulasi 2689
106. The Kalaha Episode 2691
107. Kalaha Is Emancipated 2694
108. King Cola and Brahmana Visnudasa 2696
109. King Cola and Visnudasa Become Attendants of Visnu 2698
110. The Story of Jaya and Vijaya 2700
111. The Greatness of Krsna and Veni 2703
112. Portions of Merit and Demerit That go to Others 2705
113. Dhanesvara's Story 2708
114. The Seven Hells Shown to Dhanesvara 2710
115. Asvattha and Vata Praised as Gods in Disguise 2712
116. Alaksmi's Episode 2715
117. The Importance of Bathing in Kattika 2717
118. Siva Answers Kartikeya's Queries 2720
119. In Praise of a Fast for a Month 2724
120. The Greatness of Salagrama 2728
121. The Importance of Offering Lights etc. 2734
123. Instructions Concerning the Fast 2736
124. Haribodhini, Bhismapancaka etc. 2743
125. The Importance of Magha As Told by Bhrgu 2746
126. The Importance of Magha As Told by Dattatreya 2752
127. The Release of a Demon 2763
128. The Hymn Yogasara in Praise of Visnu 2768
129. The Deliverance of the Five Gandharva Maidens and Vedanidhi's Son From Imphood 2779
130. Kinds of Devotion to Viusnu 2817
131. Worship of Salagrama Stone 2819
132. Remembering Visnu 2820
133. The Holy Places in Jambudvipa 2830
134. The Greatness of Vetravati 2833
135. The Greatness of Sabhramati 2835
136. The Greatness of Nanditirtha 2842
137. The Greatness of Svetobdhava 2844
138. The Greatness of Ganatirtha 2845
139. The Greatness of Agnipalesvara 2846
140. Hiranyasangamatirtha 2849
141. Madhuraditya 2850
142. Kambutirtha and Kapitirtha 2853
143. Ekadhara and Saptadharatirtha 2854
144. Brahmavalli and Khandatirtha 2856
145. Sangamesvara 2858
146. Rudramahalayatirtha 2859
147. Khadgatirtha 2860
148. Malarkatirtha 2860
149. Candanesvara 2861
150. Jambutirtha 2862
151. Dhavalesvara 2863
152. Balapendratirtha 2868
153. Durdharsesvara 2871
154. Khadgadharesvara 2873
155. Dugdhesvara 2878
156. Candresvara 2880
157. Pippaladatirtha 2881
158. Nimbarkadevatirtha 2882
159. Kotaratirtha 2883
160. Vamanatirtha 2884
161. Somatritha 2885
162. Kapotatirtha 2886
163. Gotirtha 2888
164. Kasyapatirtha 2888
165. Bhutalaya, Ghatesvara, and Vaidyanatha 2889
166. Pandurarya-tirtha 2890
167. Candesa, Ganatirtha 2891
168. Vartraghnisangamatirtha 2891
169. Varahatirtha 2896
170. Sangamatirtha 2897
171. Adityatirtha 2898
172. Nilakantha 2898
173. Durgasangamatirtha 2899
174. The Rise of Nrsimha 2899
175. The First Chapter of Gita: The Anecdote of Susarman 2906
176. The Second Chapter of the Gita 2910
177. The Story of Jada: The Importance of the Third Chapter 2914
178.The Fourth Chapter: The Story of Two Girls 2818
179. The Fifth Chapter: The Story of Pingala 2921
180. The Sixth Chapter: The Story of Raikya 2922
181. The Seventh Chapter: The Story of Sankukarna 2928
182. The Eighth Chapter: Bhavasarman's Story 2930
183. The Ninth Chapter: A Goat's Story 2933
184. The Tenth Chapter: A Swan's Story 2937
Part IX
185. The Greatness of the Eleventh Chapter: Sunanda's Story 2943
186. The Greatness of the Twelfth Chapter: Siddha-samadhi's Story 2950
187. The Thirteenth Chapter: Duracara's Story 2954
188. The Fourteenth Chapter: Story of a Bitch and a Hare 2957
189. The Fifteenth Chapter: The Story of King Narasimha 2960
190. The Sixteenth Chapter: Khadgabahu's Story 2963
191. The Seventeenth Chapter: Duhsasana's Story 2965
192. The Eighteenth Chapter: A Brahmana Becomes Indra 2967
193. The Greatness of the Bhagavata 2971
194. Srimad Bhagvata, the Destroyer of All Miseries 2976
195. The Rule of Reciting and Listening to the Bhagavata for a Week 2981
196. Dhundhuli's Story 2987
197. The Seven-day Bhagavata Recitation 2994
198. Procedure to be Followed during the Saptaha 3001
199. The Glory of Yamuna 3010
200. The Episode of a Bhilla and a Lion 3014
201. Sarabha's Story 3021
202. The Story of Kling Dilipa 3028
203. Dilipa Obtains a Son by Propitiating Nandini 3033
204. The Story of a Merchant Sarabha and a Demon Vikata 3038
205. The Efficacy of Nigamabodha 3047
206. A Woman Should Never Desert Her Husband 3051
207. The Story of Vimala 3055
208. The Greatness of Dvaraka 3060
209. The Story of Brahmana Mukunda 3065
210. Mukunda Goes to Heaven 3069
211. Candaka's Fate 3074
212. The Eficacy of Kosala 3078
213. A Sraddha at Madhuvana is More Meritorious 3082
214. The Greatness of Madhuvana 3087
215. Budha Infuriated and Appeased 3095
216. The Greatness of Badarikasrama 3099
217. The Greatness of Haridvara 3106
218. The Greatness of Puskara: Pundarika's Story 3109
219. The Greatness of Puskara: Pundarika Attains Absorption into Visnu 3113
220. The Greatness of Prayaga: Mohini's Story 3116
221. The Greatness of Prayaga: Hemangi and Viravarman Go to Vaikuntha 3120
222. Kasi, Gokarna, Sivakanchi, Tirthasaptaka and Bhimakunda 3123
223. Gem of a Formula 3129
224. Bearing the Marks of a Disc etc. Essential for a Brahmana 3135
225. The Efficacy of Urdhvapundra 3140
226. The Meaning of the Mantra (Formula) 3144
227. The Description of the Vibhuti of Tripad 3150
228. Description of the Highest Heaven etc. 3156
229. A Description of Visnu's Vyuhas 3163
230. The Fish Incarnation of Visnu 3174
231. Durvasas Cures Indra 3176
232. The Raise of Goddess Laksmi 3180
233. Ekadasi as a Day of Fast 3184
234. How to Observe the Vow of Dvadasi 3186
235. The Birth of Heretics 3189
236. Characterization of Various Texts and Doctrines as Sattvika, Rajasa and Tamasa 3193
237. The Boar Incarnation of Visnu 3195
238. The Emergence of Nrsimha 3198
239. The Rise of Bali and Kasyapa's Penance 3208
240. Visnu Incarnates Vamana 3211
241. Parasurama's Story 3215
242. The Story of Rama 3221
243. Rama's Consecration 3244
244. Rama Goes to Heaven 3247
245. The Brave Deeds of Krsna 3254
246. Jarasandha Defeated 3279
247. Rukmini's Abduction 3283
248. Rukmini Formally Married to Krsna 3286
249. Krsna's other Marriages 3287
250. Aniruddha's Marriage 3294
251. Destruction of Paundraka's Son 3300
252. Krsna Goes Back to His Adobe 3302
253. Modes of Visnu's Worship 3310
254. One Hundred Eight Names of Rama 3322
255. The Three Gods Subjected to Test by Bhrgu 3328
1. A Dialogue between Jaimini and Vyasa 3337
2. Characteristics Marks of a Vaisnava 3340
3. The Story of King Manobhadra 3347
4. Pranidhi, Padmavata and Dhanurdhvaja 3354
5. The Story of Madhava and Sulocana 3362
6. Happy End of the Story of Madhava and Sulocana 3375
7. Kalakalpa is Liberated by the Touch of Ganga-water 3388
8. The Love Story of Indra and Padmagandha 3397
9. The Greatness of Ganga 3405
10. The Efficacy of Campaka Flower 3415
11. The Rules of Visnu Worship 3421
12. The Greatness of the Holy Fig Tree 3431
13. Visnu's Worship With Lotuses: The Story of Praja 3439
14. Prohibitions Regarding and Fruit of Visnu Worship 3450
15. The Efficacy of Rama's Name 3453
16. Cakrika's Story 3460
17. Bhadratanu's Story 3464
18. The Greatness of Purusottama 3482
19. What Pleases Visnu; What Makes Him Angry? 3486
20. The Great Efficacy of Giving (Charity) 3494
21. Brahmanas; Gift of Food and Water 3504
22. The Grteatness of Ekadasi 3513
23. Queen Suprajna on the Efficacy of Ekadasi Vow 3523
24. The Greatness of Tulasi and Dhatri 3534
25. The Importance of Honouring a Guest 3539
26. Conduct in the Four Yuga 3545
INDEX 3551

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