The Satapatha Brahmana (In Five Volumes, Sacred Books of the East)

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The Satapatha Brahmana (In Five Volumes, Sacred Books of the East)
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The translator of the Satapatha- Brahmana can be under no illusion as to the reception his production is likely to meet with at the hand of the general reader. In the whole range of literature few works are probably less calculated to excite the interest of any outside the very limited number of specialists, than the ancient theological writings of the Hindus, known by the name of Brahmanas. For wearisome prolixity of exposition, characterised by dogmatic assertion and a flimsy symbolism rather than by serious reasoning, these works are perhaps not equalled anywhere; unless, indeed, it be by the speculative vapourings of the Gnostics, than which, in the opinion of the learned translators of Trenaus, ‘nothing more absurd has probably ever been imagined by rational beings .‘ If I have, nevertheless, undertaken, at the request of the Editor of the present Series, what would seem to be a rather thankless task, the reason will be readily understood by those who have taken even the most cursory view of the history of the Hindu mind and institutions.

The Brahmanas, it is well known, form our chief, if not our only, source of information regarding one of the most important periods in the social and mental development of India. They represent the intellectual activity of a sacerdotal caste which, by turning to account the religious instincts of a gifted and naturally devout race, had succeeded in transforming a primitive worship of the powers of nature into a highly artificial system of sacrificial ceremonies, and was ever intent on deepening and extending its hold on the minds of the people, by surrounding its own vocation with the halo of sanctity and divine inspiration.

A complicated ceremonial, requiring for its proper observance and consequent efficacy the ministrations of a highly trained priestly class, has ever been one of the most effective means of promoting hierarchical aspirations. Even practical Rome did not entirely succeed in steering clear of the rock of priestly ascendancy attained by such-like means. There, as elsewhere, ‘the neglect or faulty performance of the worship of each god revenged itself in the corresponding occurrence; and as it was a laborious and difficult task to gain even a knowledge of one’s religious obligations, the priests who were skilled in the law of divine things and pointed out its requirements—the pontifices—could not fail to attain an extraordinary influence ‘. ‘The catalogue of the duties and privileges of the priest of Jupiter might well find a place in the Talmud. ‘The rule— that no religious service can be acceptable to the gods, unless it be performed without a flaw—was pushed to such an extent, that a single sacrifice had to be repeated thirty times in succession on account of mistakes again and again committed; and the games, which formed part of the divine service, were regarded as undone, if the presiding magistrate had committed any slip in word or deed, or if the music even had paused at a wrong time, and so had to be begun afresh, frequently for several, even as many as seven, times in succession’ Great, however, as was the influence acquired by the priestly colleges of Rome, ‘it was never forgotten—least of all in the case of those who held the highest position—that their duty was not to command, but to tender skilled advice .‘ The Roman statesmen submitted to these transparent tricks rather from considerations of political expediency than from religious scruples; and the Greek Polybius might well say that ‘the strange and ponderous ceremonial of Roman religion was invented solely on account of the multitude which, as reason had no power over it, required to be ruled by signs and wonders .‘

The devout belief in the efficacy of invocation and sacrificial offering which pervades most of the hymns of the Rig-veda, and which may be assumed to reflect pretty faithfully the religious sentiments of those amongst whom they were composed, could not but ensure to the priest, endowed with the gift of sacred utterance, a considerable amount of respect and reverence on the part of the people. His superior culture and habitual communion with the divine rulers of the destinies of man would naturally entitle him to a place of honour by the side of the chiefs of clans, or the rulers of kingdoms, who would not fail to avail themselves of his spiritual services, in order to secure the favour of the gods for their warlike expeditions or political undertakings. Nor did the Vedic bard fail to urge his claims on the consideration and generosity- of those in the enjoyment of power and wealth. He often dwells on the supernatural virtues of his compositions and their mysterious efficacy in drawing down divine blessings on the pious worshipper. In urging the necessity of frequent and liberal offerings to the gods, and invoking worldly blessings on the offered, the priestly bard may often be detected pleading his own cause along with that of his employer, as Kanva does when he sings (Rigveda VIII, 13), ‘Let him be rich, let him be foremost, the bard of the rich, of so illustrious a Maghavan’ as thou, 0 lord of the bay steeds!’ Though the Dana-stutis, or verses extolling, often in highly exaggerated terms, the munificence of princely patrons, and generally occurring at the end of hymns, are doubtless, as a rule, later additions, they at least show that the sacerdotal office must have been, or must gradually have become during this period, a very lucrative one.

Although there is no reason to suppose that the sacrificial ceremonial was in early times so fully developed as some scholars would have us believe, the religious service would seem to have been already of a sufficiently advanced nature to require some kind of training for the priestly office. In course of time, while the collection of hymns were faithfully handed down as precious heirlooms in the several families, and were gradually enriched by the poetical genius of succeeding generations, the ceremonial became more and more complicated, so as at last to necessitate the distribution of the sacerdotal functions among several distinct classes of priests. Such a distribution of sacrificial duties must have taken place before the close of the period of the hymns, and there can be little doubt that at that time the position of the priesthood in the community was that of a regular profession, and even, to some extent, a hereditary one. A post of peculiar importance, which seems to go back to a very early time, was that of the Purohita (literally ‘praepositus ‘), or family priest to chiefs and kings. From the comparatively modest position of a private chaplain, who had to attend to the sacrificial obligations of his master, he appears to have gradually raised himself to the dignity of, so to say, a minister of public worship and confidential adviser of the king. It is obvious that such a post was singularly favourable to the designs of a crafty and ambitious priest, and must have offered him exceptional opportunities for promoting the hierarchical aspirations of the priesthood.


Content: Part I


  Introduction ix
  First Kanda  
  Darsapurnamaseshti, or New and Full-moon Sacrifices 1
  Vow of Abstinence 1
  Preparation of Offerings 6
  Leading forth of Pranitah 6
  Taking out of rice for the cakes 11
  Preparation of strainers and consecration of the rice by sprinkling with lustral water 19
  Husking and grinding of the rice 23-38
  Putting on of the potsherds 32
  Preparation and baking of the cakes 42
  Preparation of the Altar 47
  Samishtayagus, or throwing away of the grass-bush 55
  Lines of enclosure 59
  Cleaning of spoons 67
  Girding of the sacrificer’s wife and eyeing of the butter 71
  The offering-spoons 78
  Covering of the altar with sacrificial grass 83
  Enclosing of the fire with the Paridhis 87
  Kindling of the Fire 95
  The Pravara, or choosing of Human Hotri 114
  Agharau, or two libations of ghee 124
  The Pravara, or choosing of Human Hotri 131
  Prayagas, or fore-offerings 138
  Agyabhagau, or two butter-portions to Agni-Soma 159
  Special Preliminary Rites of New-moon Sacrifice 175
  Chief Offering, viz. 190
  Cake to Agni 199
  Low-voiced offering (upamsuyaga) to Agni-Soma.  
  Cake to Agni-Soma at Full-moon Sacrifice.  
  Cake to Indra-Agni, or Samnayya to Indra at New-moon Sacrifice.  
  Oblation to Agni Svishtakrit 199
  Brahman’s portions 208
  Ida 216
  Anuyagas, or after-offerings 230
  Suktavaka, Samyuvaka, and offering of remains 236
  Patnisamyagas 256
  Concluding ceremonies 262
  Second Kanda  
  Agnyadhana, or Establishment of Sacred Fires 274
  Sambharas 276
  Asterisms suitable for Agnyadhana 282
  Seasons suitable for Agnyadhana 289
  Upavasatha 291
  Churning and laying down of fire 294
  Oblations 302
  Punaradheya, or Re-establishment of Fire 313
  Agnihotra, or Morning and Evening Milk-offerings 322
  Agnyupasthana, or Worship of Fires 338
  Pindapitriyagna, or oblation of Obsequial Cakes to Deceased Ancestors 361
  Agrayaneshti, or Offering of First-fruits 369
  Dakshayana (New and Full-moon) Sacrifice 374
  Katurmasyani, or Seasonal Sacrifices 383
  Vaisvadeva 384
  Varunapraghasah 391
  Sakamedhah 408
  Mahahavih, or great oblation 417
  Maha-pitriyagna 420
  Oblation to Rudra Tryambaka 437
  Sunasirya 444
  Additions and Corrections 452
  Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Translations of the Sacred Books of the East 453
  Contents: Part II  
  Introduction xi
  Third Kanda  
  A. Day (or Days) of Preparation Diksha, or Consecration 1
  Prayaniyeshti, or Opening Sacrifice 47
  Hiranyavati-ahuti, or Offering with Gold; and Homage to Soma-cow 52
  Purchase of Soma-plants 63
  Procession and Entrance of King Soma 75
  Subrahmanya-litany 81
  Atithya, or Guest-meal to King Soma 85
  Tanunaptra, or Covenant of Tanunapat 93
  Avantara-diksha, or Intermediary Consecration 97
  Upasadah, or Homages (sieges) 104
  Preparation of Soma-altar with High-altar 111
  Agni-pranayana, or Leading Forward of the Fire to the High-altar 121
  Construction of Sheds, and Preparation of Pressing-place and Dhishnya-hearths 126
  Havirdhana, or Cart-shed 126
  Uparava, or Sound-holes 135
  Sadas, or Tent 140
  Dhishnya-hearths 148
  Vaisargina-offerings, and Leading Forward of Agni and Soma (to Agnidhra) 155
  Animal Sacrifice 162
  Setting up of Sacrificial Stake 162
  Slaying of Viction 178
  Fore-offerings with Aprt-verses 184
  Offering of Omentum (vapa) 190
  Pasu-purodasa, or Cake-offering 199
  Cutting and offering of Flesh-portions 201
  Offering of gravy (vasa) 205
  Offering to Vanaspati 208
  After-offerings 210
  Purificatory Bath, &c. 215
  Ekadasini, or Set of Eleven Victims 217
  Vasativari-water 222
  B. Day of Soma-feast.  
  Pratar-anuvaka, or Morning-prayer; and Preparatory Ceremonies 226
  Pratah-savana, or Morning-pressing:-  
  Preliminary Pressing 238
  Nigrabhya-water 242
  Nigrabha-formula 245
  Fourth Kanda  
  Upamsu-graha 248
  Great Pressing:-  
  Antaryama-graha 257
  Aindravayava-graha 265
  Maitravaruna-graha 265
  Asvina-graha 272
  Sukra-and Manthi-grahas 278
  Agrayana-graha 288
  Ukthya-graha 292
  Vaisvanara- and Dhruva-grahas 298
  Viprud-homa, or Oblation of Drops 305
  Bahishpavamana-stotra 307
  Asvina-graha 312
  Offering of Savaniya-purodasah 314
  Ritu-grahas, or Libations to the Seasons 318
  Aindragna-graha 322
  Vaisvadeva-graha 323
  Agya-sastra 325
  Madhyandina-savana, or Midday-pressing 331
  Sukra and Manthin; Agrayana and Ukthya-grahas 332
  Marutvatiya-grahas 334
  Mahendra-graha 338
  Dakshina-Somas 340
  Tritiya-savana, or Evening-pressing 350
  Asvina-graha 351
  Agrayana-graha 355
  Savitra-graha 357
  Vaisvadeva-graha 359
  Offering of karu (rice-pap) to Soma 363
  Patnivata-graha 365
  Agnimaruta-sastra 369
  Hariyogana-graha 370
  Concluding Ceremonies 374
  Samishtayagus 374
  Avabhritha, or Purificatory Bath 378
  Udayaniya-ishti 386
  Udavasaniya-ishti, or Completing Oblation 389
  Offering of Barren Cow 391
  C. Additional Forms of Soma-sacrifice  
  Shodasin 397
  Dvadasaha 402
  Atigrahyas 402
  Avakasas 409
  Triratra sahasradakshina 414
  Dvadasaha vyudha-khandas 418
  Amsu-graha 423
  Gavam ayanam 426
  Mahavratiya-graha 429
  Brahma-saman 434
  Diksha, or Consecration, for Sacrificial Sessions 440
  Sattrotthana, or Rising from a Session 447
  Katurhoti-formulas 452
  Brahmodya 452
  Index to Part I and II (Vols. XII & XXVI) 457
  Additions and Corrections 474
  Plan of Sacrificial Ground 475
  Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Translations of the Sacred Books of the East 477
  Contents: Part III  
  Introduction xi
  Fifth Kanda  
  A. The Vagapeya 1
  The Cups (graha) of Soma 5
  The Cups of Sura 8
  Animal Victims 11
  Consecration 17
  Chariot-race 17
  Apti and Klipti-formulas 29
  The Mounting of the Sacrificial Post by the Sacrificial and his Wife 31
  The Seating on the Throne-seat 35
  Vaga-prasavaniya-oblations 37
  Uggiti (victory)-formulas 40
  B. The Ragasuya, or Inauguration of a King 42
  Preliminary offerings 42
  Seasonal-offerings 47
  Indraturiya-oblation 50
  Trishamyukta-offerings 54
  Ratna-havimshi, or Jewel-offerings 58
  Offering to Soma and Rudra 65
  Offering to Mitra and Brihaspati 66
  Savitri Satyaprasava, Agni Grihapat 68
  Soma Vanaspati, Brihaspati Vak, Indra Gyeshtha, Rudra Pasupati 70
  Mitra Satya, Varuna Dharmapati 71
  Preparation of the Censecration Water 73
  Partha-oblations 81
  Investing of the King with the Consecration Garments, the Bow and Arrows 85
  Avid-formulas 89
  Ascending of the Quarters 91
  Stepping on the Tiger-skin 92
  The Sprinkling (Abhisheka) 94
  The Cow-raid 98
  Rathavimokaniya-oblations 101
  Game of Dice 106
  The Passing Round of the Sacrificial Sword 110
  Dasapeya 114
  Samsrip-oblations 115
  Pankabila-oblations 120
  Prayugam havimshi (Oblations to the Teams) 123
  Kesavapaniya 126
  Sautramani 129
  Sixth Kanda  
  Agni-kayana, or Building of the Fire-altar 143
  Creation of the Universe 143
  Animal Sacrifices 165
  Layers and Bricks of the Altar 186
  Savitra Libations 190
  The Search for Agni (the Lump of Clay) 197
  The Digging 203
  The Making of the Fire-pan (ukha) 229
  Diksha, or Initiation 246
  The Raising and Carrying of the Ukhya Agni 265
  The Fashioning of the Embryonic Agni 273
  The Vishnu-strides 275
  Vatsapra 283
  The Driving-about of the Ukhya Agni 289
  Seventh Kanda
Agni-kayana (continued)
  Garhapatya-hearth 298
  Pouring thereon of the Ukhya Agni 310
  Altar of Nirriti 319
  Preparation of the (Ahavaniya) Fire-altar 325
  Ploughing, Watering, and Sowing of Ground 326
  Bricks of the First Layer 355
  Lotus-leaf 363
  Gold Plate 364
  Gold Man 366
  Svayam-atrinna Brick 377
  Durva Plant 380
  Dviyagus Bricks 381
  Retahsik Bricks 383
  Visvagyotis Brick 384
  Ritavya Bricks 386
  Ashadha Brick 387
  Tortoise 389
  Mortar and Pestle 393
  Fire-pan 396
  Victims Heads 400
  Apasya Bricks 413
  Khandasya Bricks 414
  Corrections 418
  Plan of Fire-altar 419
  Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Translations of the Sacred Books of the East 421
  Contents- Part IV  
  Introduction xiii
  Eight Kanda  
  The Building of the Sacred Fire-altar (continued)  
  First Layer (continued):- 1
  Pranabhrit (5 sets of 10 each) 1
  Lokamprina 22
  Second Layer:- 22
  Asvini (5) 23
  Ritavya (2) 29
  Vaisvadevi (5) 30
  Pranabhrit (5) 33
  Apasya (5) 34
  Khandasya (19) 36
  Lokamprina 41
  Third Layer:- 41
  Svayamatrinna (1) 42
  Disya (5) 43
  Visvagyotis (1) 47
  Ritavya (4) 48
  Pranabhrit (10) 51
  Khandasya (36) 51
  Valakhilya (14) 54
  Lokamprina 58
  Fourth Layer:- 58
  Stoma (18) 59,77
  Sprit (10) 66
  Ritavya (2) 70
  Srishfi (17) 71
  Lokamprina 82
  Fifth Layer:- 82
  Asapatna (5) 83
  Khandasya, or Virag (4 sets of 10 each) 83, 87
  Stomabhaga (29) 92
  Nakasad (5) 97
  Pankakuda (5) 103
  Khandasya (10 sets of 3 each) 109
  Garhapatya hearth (8) 117
  Punaskiti (8) 119
  Ritavya (2) 125
  Visvagyotis 129
  Lokamprina (1) 131
  Vikarni (1) 141
  Svayamatrinna (1) 142
  Samans sung thereon 145
  Scattering of 100 chips of gold on altar 146
  Symbolical meaning of layers 147
  Ninth Kanda  
  Satarudriya 150, 156
  Oblations on three enclosing-stones 158
  Avatana (unstringing) libations 163
  Pratyavaroha (redescending) libations 164
  Sprinkling of altar 169
  Throwing of stone towards Nirriti’s quarter 171
  Taking possession of the bricks, as milch cows 172
  Drawing of frog, lotus-flower, and bamboo-shoot across that altar 174
  Samans sung round the altar 177
  Day of Preparation for Soma-sacrifice 181
  Libations on Svayamatrinna 182
  Sprinkling of altar with sour curds, honey and ghee 184
  Pravargya 187
  Leading forward of Agni to the Altar 188
  Oblations of ghee on udumbara logs 189
  Lifting of log, setting forth, Apratirtha hymn 191
  Setting up of variegated stone on Agnidhra site 195
  Mounting of Fire-altar 198
  Milk-offering on firebrand 200
  Laying down of, and putting logs on, Ahavaniya fire 202
  Oblations thereon 204
  Installation and Consecration of Agni 207
  Cakes to Vaisvanara and Maruts 207
  Vasor dhara, or shower of wealth 213
  Ardhendra and Graha oblations 216
  Yagnakratus 217
  Oblations to Stomas and age-grades 217
  Kalpa (prospering) libations 220
  Vagaprasaviya libations 223
  Partha libations 225
  Consecration of Sacrificer 226
  Rashtrabhrit oblations 229
  Oblations on head of chariot 233
  Yoking of chariot with oblations of air 235
  Runmati (lightsome) oblations 237
  Arkasvamedha-samtati oblations 239
  Preparatory Rites of Soma-sacrifice 241
  Building of Dhishnya hearths 241
  Agnishomiya (animal) sacrifice 245
  Oblations to Regions 245
  Oblations to Divine Quickeners (devasti) 246
  Pasupurodasa-offering 248
  Sutya, or Day of Soma-sacrifice 249
  Agniyoga, or yoking of Fire-altar 249
  Pressing and offering of Soma 251
  Unyoking of Fire-altar 252
  Milk for fast-food 255
  Samishtayagus oblations 257
  Udayaniya, and offering of barren cow 263
  Cake to Order (Pragapati and the sun) 264
  Oblations to goddesses Anumati, Raka, Sinivali and Kuhu 264
  Pasupurodasa and concluding ceremonies of offering of barren cow 265
  Vaisvakarmana oblations 266
  Payasya-offering to Mitra and Varuna 270
  Rules for a repeated Agnikayana 271
  Propitiatory hymn to Indra and Agni 274
  Tenth Kanda  
  The Mystery of the Fire-altar 281
  The traid-Fire altar, Mahad uktham, and Mahavrata 281
  Parimad samans 288
  Pragapati made immortal 290
  Layers of altar partly mortal and partly immortal 292
  Agnikayana includes all sacrifices 296
  Contraction and expansion of wings of altar (bird) 300
  Dimensions of Fire-altar 305
  Sevenfold and hundred and one fold altars 313
  Time for building the altar 316
  Number of Upasad-days 317
  Pragapati, the Altar and the Year (Time) 321
  The metres in relation to Pragapati 327
  Dhira Sataparneya and Mahasala Gabala on the knowledge of Agni 331
  Aruni on the mystery of the Arka 333
  Mystic import of the Yagus 336
  The sacred fire, the Arka, the one Akshara, the great Brahman 343
  Pragapati, the year, is Agni, and King Soma, the moon 349
  Trayi vidya (the Vedas) 352
  Pragapati, the year, as Death 356
  The Sacrificer is Pragapati, and immortal 357
  Numbers of bricks in layers 358
  Session of a thousand years 361
  Mystic import of Agni, the Fire-altar 363
  The gold plate and gold man as sun and the man in the sun 366
  Death, the man in the right eye, and the man in the sun 371
  Mind, the ultimate cause of the universe 375
  The Fire-altar, the universe 381
  Kusri Vagasravasa on the c onstruction of the altar 390
  Asvapati Kaikeya on the nature of Vaisvanara 393
  The Agni-like, Arka-like, Uktha-like Purusha 398
  The true Brahman, the Self, the golden Purusha 400
  The sacrificial horse (Pragapati), the universe 401
  Death, the ultimate cause 402
  Death, the Arka and Asvamedha, conqured by Corrections 404
  Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Translations of the Sacred Books of the East 407
  Contents: Part V  
  Introduction xiii
  Eleventh Kanda  
  The Full and New-Moon Sacrifice (Supplementary Remarks)  
  Time of Sacrifice 1
  Additional oblations to Indra Vimridh and Aditi 5
  Expiatory oblations (to Agni, Indra, Vishnu0 at New Moon 7
  Birth of Pragapati from golden egg 12
  He creates Gods (Agni, Indra, Soma, Parameshthin) and Asuras 13
  Sacrifice representing universe and man 18
  Brahman (n), the origin and immortal element, of gods and universe 27
  Sacrifice, the Year 38
  The Agnihotra (esoteric doctrines) 46
  The Brahmakarin 48
  Uddalaka Aruni and Svaidayana 50
  Saulvayana and Ayasthuna 61
  The Mitravinda Sacrifice 62
  Sri dismembered 62
  Puruvavas and Urvasi 68
  The Seasonal Sacrifices (Katurmasya) 74
  Saukeya Prakinayogya and Uddalaka Aruni on the Agnihotra 79
  The Upanayana, or Initiation of the Brahmanical Student 86
  The Savitri formula 87
  The Satatiratra Sattra 91
  The Morning-Litany (prataranuvaka) of the Atiratra 92
  The Svadhyaya, or Dail Study of the Veda 95
  The three Vedas, or triple science 102
  The Adabhya Cup of Soma 105
  Varuna and his son Bhrigu (on future states of existence) 108
  Ganaka of Videha on the Agnihotra 112
  Yagnavalkya and Sakalya (on the gods and the supreme deity) 115
  The Animal Sacrifice, of two kinds 118
  The Sacrificial stake (yupa) 123
  The Viction and its deity 127
  The King of the Kesin and his Samrag-cow 131
  Twelfth Kanda  
  The Sacrificial Session (Sattra) 135
  Man, the Year 144
  The Tapaskita Sattra 171
  Expiatory Ceremonies of the Agnihotra 178
  The going out of one of the fires 187
  The death of the Agnihotrin 197
  The burying of the dead body 200
  Expiatory Oblations of Soma-sacrifice 205
  The Sautramani 213
  Namuki slain by Indra 216, 222
  Preparation of the Sura-liquor 223
  Oblations of milk and Sura 231
  Oblations to the Fathers 234
  The Asvina, Sarasvata, and Aindra cups 245
  Indraassited and healed by the Asvins and Sarasvati 223, 249
  Consecration of Sacrificer 249
  Cakes to Indra, Savitri, and Varuna 247, 260
  The Avabhritha, or purificatory bath 264
  Kakra Sthapati performs Sautramani for Dushtaritu Paumsayana 269
  Thirteenth Kanda  
  The Asvamedha, or Horse-sacrifice 274
  Fettering and sprinkling of Horse 276
  Stokiya oblations 280
  Prakrama oblations 282
  Three cake-offerings to Savitri 284
  Dhrti oblations 285
  Lute-playing by Brahmana and Raganya 285
  Diksha, or Initation 289
  Vaisvadeva oblations 289
  Audgrabhana oblations 291
  First Soma-day (Agnishtoma) 295
  Annahomas (food oblations) 296
  Second Soma-day (Ukthya) 298
  Fettering of victioms 298
  Bahishpavaman-stotra 304
  Setting free of the wild victims 307
  Sacrificer drives with Horse to pond of water and back 311
  Horse anointed and adorned by Sacrificer’s wives 312
  Brahmodya of Hotri and Brahman 314
  Sprinkling of Horse by Adhvaryu (and Sacrificer) 316
  Killing of Horse on cloths and plate of gold 320
  Wives led up to circumambulate and fan the Horso 322
  Mahishi addresses the Horse 323
  Priests’ colloquy with wives 324
  The Knife-paths made with needles 326
  The two Mahiman Cups of Soma 327
  The Chanting of the Katushtoma 329
  Aranye-nukya oblations 336
  Svishtakrit oblations of blood 337
  Oblations to the Deaths 340
  Asvastomiya oblations 341
  Dvipada oblations 342
  Expiatory Offerings 345
  Right time for performing the Asvamedha 347
  Preliminary Ceremonies:- the mess of rice 348
  Sacrificer and wives pass the right in the sacrificial hall 349
  Offering to Agni Pathikrit – the mouth of the Sacrifice 350
  Offering to Pushan 352
  Leading up of the Horse, assisted by its noble keepers 353
  Three Savitra offering (performed daily for a year) 355
  Brahman lute-player sings three gathas 356
  Horse and keepers sent to range the quarters 359
  The Pariplava Akhyana, or revolving legend 361-370
  Prakrama and Dhriti oblations 363
  Raganya lute-player sings three gathas 364
  Diksha, or Initiation (at end of year) 371
  Sutya-days 372
  The set of twenty-one sacrificial stakes 373
  The chanting of Gotama’s Katushtoma 375
  The Sastras and Stotras of the Central (Ekavimsa) day 377
  The animal sacrifices of that day 382
  The Adhrigu litany 385
  The Mahishi and the Horse 386
  Colloquy of priests, chamberlain and women 386
  Brahmodya of priests 388
  The first Mahimam Cup of Soma 391
  The offering of the omenta (vapa) 392
  The second Mahiman Cup of Soma 394
  The Stotras of the third (Atiratra) day 395
  Various Arrangements of the Asvamedha Chants 396
  Offering of barren cows 402
  Animal sacrifices performed in following year 402
  The Purushamedha, or Human Sacrifice 403
  Animal sacrifices 404
  The (symbolical) human victims 407
  Purusha-Narayana litany (Purusha-sukta) 410
  Traidhatavi offering 412
  Uttara-Narayana litany 412
  Enumeration of the human citims 413
  The Sarvamedha, or All-Sacrifice 417
  The ten Sutya-days thereof 418
  Funeral Ceremonies 421
  Burial-ground (smasana) 421
  Locality of the tomb 424
  Form and size of the tomb 428
  Preparation (sweeping, ploughing, sowing) of the site 429
  Depositing of charred bones 433
  Arranging of bones limb by limb 434
  Body completed by bricks, like bird-shaped altar 435
  Height of sepulchral mound 435
  Driving in of pins marking site of mound 436
  Furrows, dug south and north, filled with (milk and) water 437
  Passing the northern ones on three stones thrown in by each 437
  Purification by Apamarga plants and bath 438
  Home-going and offering to Agni Ayushmat on housefire 439
  Depositing of clod midway between grave and village 440
  Fourteenth Kanda  
  The Pravargya 441
  Sacrifical session performed by the gods at Kurukshetra 441
  Vishnu excels and becomes overweening 442
  Bowstring, gnawed by ants, cuts off his head 442
  The names ‘Gharma, Pravargya, Mahavira, Samrag’ explained 442
  Vishnu’s body divided between the gods 443
  Dadhyarik Atharvana warned by Indra not to teach the sweet doctrine 444
  His head cut off by Indra, and restored by the Asvins 445
  Rule of abstinence observed when teaching the Pravargya 446
  Collecting materials for making the Mahavira pot 447
  Pragapati, as the boar Emusha, raises the Earth 451
  The making of the Mahavira vessels in shed 453
  The fumigating and baking of the vessels 456
  Depositing of vessels and implements in from of Garhapatya 458
  The Hotri’s recitation 459
  Sprinkling of pot with lustral water 460
  The Mahavira’s (imperial) Throne-seat south of Ahavaniya 461
  The pot anointed with ghee 462
  The pot set down on mound upon burning reed-sheaths 463
  The Sacrificer invoking blessings upon the earth 464
  Pieces of Vikankata wood laid round, and a gold plant upon the pot 466
  Fanning of the fire with three pieces of antelope-skin till aglow 467
  Revering of the heated pot with the Avakasa verses 469
  Offering of the first Rauhina cake 472
  Samrag-cow tied and milked 474
  The pot lifted from the fire and placed on the tray 476
  Cooling of pot with goat’s milk; 477
  Oblations made by (muttering) the (twelve) mind-names 478
  Pouring of spilt milk and ghee from tray into pot 481
  Oblation to Asvins 482
  Anumantrana to the rising milk 484
  Mahavira pot placed on mound 485
  Offering of the steeped Vikankata chips (to Pushan, &c.) 486
  Pouring of remaining milk from pot into tray 488
  Offering of the second Rauhina cake 489
  Sacrificer drinks the remaining Gharma 489
  Cleansing, and performance of Upasad 490
  Rules for priests as to how and for whom to perform the Pravargya 490
  Pravargyotsadana, or ‘setting out’ of the implements 493
  Kindling of bundles of faggots, and offering thereon 494
  Procession led by Prastotri singing a Saman 496
  Arrangement of apparatus in form of human body 498
  Singing of Varshahara-saman and departure 501
  Mode of performance at continued Soma-sacrifices 502
  Dakshinas, or sacrificial fees 503
  Expiatory ceremonies in case of breaking of pot 504
  Laudation of Pravargya 507
  Index to Parts III, IV and V 511
  Additions and Corrections 591
  Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Translations of the Sacred Books of the East 593


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