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Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Set of 26 Books
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All Volumes included in this set:

Bibliography, The Tradition of Nyaya-Vasesika up to Gangesa, Advaita Vedanta up to Samkara and his Pupils, Samkhya, The Philosophy of the Grammarians, Indian Philosophical Analysis Nyaya-Vaisesika from Gangesa to Raghunatha Siromani, Abhidharma Buddhism To 150 A.D., Buddhist Philosophy from 100 to 350 A.D., Buddhist Philosophy from 350 to 600 A.D., Jain Philosophy - Part I, Advaita Vedanta from 800 to 1200, India's Philosophy of Meditation, Nyaya-Vaisesika Philosophy from 1515 to 1660, Jain Philosophy Part II, Bhedabheda and Dvaitadvaita Systems, Philosophy of Purva-Mimamsa, Jain Philosophy Part- III, Dvaita Vedanta Philosophy, Acintyabhedhabheda Vaisnava Philosophy, Visistadvaita Vedanta, Buddhist Philosophy from 600 to 750 A.D., Buddhist Philosophy from 750 Onward, Suddhadvaita Vedanta Philosophy, Kashmir Saiva Philosophy, Bhedabheda and Dvaitadvaita Systems



This volume provides a detailed resume of current knowledge about the classical Indian Philosophical Systems of Nyaya and Vaisesika in their earlier stages, i.e. covering the literature from their inception in the sutras of Gautama and Kanada before the time of Gangesa (about A.D. 1350). The summaries are arranged in relative chronolo-gical order to assist the reader in tracing the development of the syncretic school's thought. Scholars around the world - India, Japan, America - have collaborated in the undertaking. The summaries in the volume serve us a tool for introducing Indian thoughts into their courses on problems of philosophy, history of thought, etc. and guide the students for further study. The index appended will enable the reader to identify all the passages summarized here on a particular topic.

The many competences of the authors of summaries include the Indian collaborators' knowledge in depth of Indian thoughts and the western points of view of the Western scholars.


About the Author

Karl H. Potter is Professor of Philosophy and south Asian Studies at the University of Washington, and is General Editor of the present series, which attempts to summarily present the thought of all the great philosophical systems of India.


The present volume provides a detailed resumé of current knowledge about the classical Indian philosophical system of Nyaya-Vaisesika in its earlier stages. Specifically, it covers the literatures of Nyaya and Vaikika from their inception in the respective sutras up to the time of Gangesa, that is, about A.D. 1350. This dividing point is regularly accepted in the tradition, since with Gangea it is felt that a new start is made within the systems, the result coming to be known as Navyanyaya, “new” Nyaya. We hope that a volume will follow covering the remainder of the Nyaya-Vaiseika literature from Gangesa to the present.

A volume already published, Bibliography of Indian Philosophies (New Delhi Motilal Banarsidass, 1970), provides a useful guide to the literature, both primary and secondary, on the Nyaya-Vaisika school, and citations in the present book make constant references to the Bibliography, such references usually appearing in the form of “B” followed by the number of entry cited.

The form of this book features an extended introductory section followed by summaries of works belonging to the system’s literature. These summaries are arranged in relative chronological order to assist the reader in tracing the development of the school’s thought. Summaries have been solicited from scholars around the world— Indian, Japanese, and American scholars have collaborated in the undertaking. This international aspect of the book is one of its pleasantest features, serving to put philosophers and Indologists around the world in closer touch with one another.

A few words of explanation and advice as to how to use this book may be in order. Perhaps the first and foremost thing that needs to be said is that this volume is not intended to be analytically definitive: it invites the attention of philosophers and scholars rather than making such attention unnecessary. The thinking behind the preparation of this volume has been that philosophers without tended training in Sanskrit and Indian studies are not in a very good position to appreciate the contributions made by classical Indian philosophy toward the solution of perennial philosophical problems. This is partly due to the fact that the tradition in which the Indian schools arise and grow is foreign to Western philosophers, but our thinking is that this fact is an avoidable hazard. It is also partly due to the type of translations that have been produced by Indian and Western Sanskrit scholars; these translations, while usually accurate, are not always philosophically perspicuous, which is to say that they do not always bring out what a professional philosopher will find most interesting and identifiable in the material. The production of an acceptable translation is, and ought to be, a serious and extensive scholarly problem, and the summaries in Part II of this book are in no way intended as surrogates for such translations. Nevertheless, we think that philosophers should be provided with a tool for introducing Indian thought into their courses on problems of philosophy, history of thought, etc., and that the translations and other materials currently available to them do not make it really possible for them to work up Indian thought without more training than most philosophers are willing or able to expose themselves to. Our aim here, then, is to provide the philosopher with an account of the systematic thought of India which is less detailed than an accurate translation, but more detailed than the standard introductory textbook on Indian philosophy.

It is to be stressed that the work is addressed to philosophers primarily, and Indologists secondarily. Of course we hope that the materials here presented will, within the limits of our intent, be adjudged sufficiently accurate in terms of scholarship. The editor has endeavored to obtain the work of some of the leading scholars of the system to furnish summaries. However, these summaries omit large portions, may well omit sections which others deem of primary importance, and will otherwise deviate from the evaluations likely to be made by the Sanskritist. In order that there be no misunderstanding it is well to mention these points here. These summaries, then, are not substitutes for scholarship, but guides and markers for further study on the part of trained scholars.

In studying the philosophy of the Nyâya-Vaiesika school one finds that a fair amount of the literature occurs in the sütra or commentary form so well known in India. The reader should bear in mind that, in the summary of one of the sütras, say, what is summarized is no more than what is actually said there; if the summary seems imprecise and laconic, that is because (if we have done our work well) the sutra has those features. It is characteristic of this tradition that the commentators spell out what they believe to be the intent of the authors of the sutras; thus the reader should, if he is tracing the thought of the school on a given topic, be careful to read the summaries of the commentators in conjunction with that of the sutra. The index provided is intended to enable the reader to identify all the passages summarized here which bear upon a given topic and he is advised to use it frequently. Sometimes too an author will comment on a topic in a part of his work unrelated to any logical development that the ordinary reader can discern here again the reader may well miss this contribution unless he uses the index.

This volume has been in preparation for a number of years. Work on it began in the early 1960s. The editor wishes to thank the American Institute of Indian Studies for awarding him a follow ship in 1963-64 which enabled him to visit prospective contributors and utilize the resources that India provided for furthering his work, later on in the summer of 1967 he received a summer session grant form the University of Minnesota which enabled him to use the widener library to locate out of the way secondary materials in preparing his introductory section. He is extremely grateful for both these opportunities.



A full scale philosophical system is generally expected to speak to problems in the following areas metaphysics epistemology, ethic and theory of value logic and philosophical method. The system of Indian philosophy known as Nyaya Vaisesika is such a full scale system. Its contribution en each and every one of these areas is extensive interesting and usually of fundamental importance as this introduction will attempt to show.

Metaphysics: Nyaya-Vaisesika offers one of the most vigorous efforts at the construction of a substantialist, realist ontology that the world has ever seen. It provides an extended critique 0f eventontologies and idealist metaphysics. It starts from a unique basis r ontology that incorporates several 0f the most recent Western insights into the question of how to defend realism most successfully. This ontology is “Platonistic” (it admits repeatable properties as Plato’s did), realistic (it builds the world from “timeless” individuals as well as spatiotemporal points or events), but neither exclusively phvsicalistic nor phenomenalistic (it admits as basic individuals entries both directly known and inferred from scientific investigations)’ Though the system has many quaint and archaic features from a modern point of view, as a philosophical base for accommodating scientific insights it has advantages: its authors developed an atomic theory, came to treat numbers very much in the spirit of modern mathematics, argued for a wave theory of sound transmission, and adapted an empiricist view 0f causality to their own uses.

Epistemology: Whereas in “modern” philosophy of the West the idealist critique 0f substance initiated by Berkeley has never been curiously challenged, the philosophers of the Nyaya-Vaikika school entered the controversy very early in its history against Buddhists who used Berkeley an arguments. The resulting polemical battle may well represent the most important confrontation in philosophical literature between so-called naive realism and the threats to it from idealist sources. Nyaya offers an account of perception which makes sense of our belief in an external world, yet promises to explain the fact of perceptual error without allowing that opening wedge of idealism, the admission that the mind creates certain parts of our world (and so why not all of it ?). The intricacy of this discussion between Nyaya and Buddhism brings out many fascinating and little understood aspects of the two views and what they require from their adherents.

Ethics and Theory of Value: The Nyaya-Vaisesika system provides no startling new ideas over and beyond what is generally acceptable to Hindus, but it presents many carefully gauged arguments for the standard position, involving belief in transmigration, karma, and the possibility of liberation from future rebirths. It does not discuss questions of “ethical theory” as we understand that term in contemporary philosophy, since that was the business of others (Mimamsakas) in the peculiar division of labor adopted by the ancient Indian thinkers. However, it endorses many of the general ethical attitudes of Hindu sages, questioning some in passing. On one point Nyaya is recognized by Hindus to have provided a definitive treatment, and this is on arguments for the existence of God.

Logic: Nyaya grew in part as a theory of philosophical debate, and among Hindus has been accepted as the system which specially studies the theory of arguments good and bad, in keeping with the division of labor principle alluded to in the previous paragraph. This does not mean that all Hindu philosophers accepted every point in the Nyaya account, but they certainly tended to look to Nyaya for definitive treatment and detailed discussions of intricate points. Nyaya had its great rival, however, in the logic developed by the Buddhists, and from this controversy developed one of the mast comprehensive logical theories the world has known. Indian logic is never conceived as “format” in the Western sense, but as an account of sane processes of reasoning it has few equals in the West for attention to detail.

Philosophical Method: Topics in this area are of the greatest current interest to philosophers in the Anglo-American tradition. Western philosophers sometimes seem to suppose that the “linguistic turn” in recent philosophy is a unique phenomenon, a turning- point in the history of philosophy. Perhaps it is, but if so it took place many centuries ago in India, where attention to grammar was commonplace by the 4th century B.C. The Nyaya theory 0f language, 0f meaning and the meaningfulness of words and sentences, shows subtly at the levels of syntax semantics and pragmatics Nyaya also gave prolonged attention to defense of the empirical theory of validity and truth opposing uncritical use of introduction and authoritarian appeals to revelation.




  Preface xi
Part One: Introduction to the philosophy of Nyaya Vaisesika
1 Historical Resume 1
2 Theory of Value 18
3 Nature of a philosophical System 38
4 Relations 47
5 Substance 69
6 Qualities and motions 112
7 Universals Individuals and absences 133
8 Meaning and truth 147
9 Logical theory 179
Part Two: Summaries of works
1 Kanada 211
  Vaisesikasutras (Masaaki Hattori) 212
2 Gautama 220
  Nyayasutras (karl H. Potter) 221
3 Vakyakara 238
4 Katandikara 238
5 Vatsyayana 239
  Nyayabhasya (karl H. Potter) 240
6 Candramati 274
  Dasapadarthasastra (masaaki Hattori) 275
7 Bhavivika 281
8 Prasastapada 282
  Padarthadharmasamgraha (karl H. Potter) 282
9 Uddyotakara 303
  Nyayavarttika (karl H. Potter) 304
10 Atreya 337
11 Prticandra 338
12 Aviddhakarana 338
13 Samkara (svamin) 340
14 Visvarupa 341
15 Dhairyarasi 341
16 Jayanta Bhatta 341
  Nyayamanjari (karl H. Potter, J.V. Bhattarchar, U. Arya) 343
  Nyayakalika (J.V. Bhattacharya) 394
17 The Nyayaratnakara 395
18 Trilocana 396
19 Bhasarvajna 398
  Nyayasara (karl H. Potter) 400
  Nyayabhusana (B.K. Matilal) 410
20 Sanatani 424
21 Vyomasiva 424
  Vyomavati (V. Varadachari) 425
22 Vacaspati Misra 453
  Nyayavarttikatatparyatika (B.K. Matilal) 455
23 Adhyayana 484
24 Vittoka 484
25 Narasimha 484
26 Sridhara 485
  Nyayakandali (karl H. Potter) 485
27 Srivatsa 520
28 Aniruddha 521
29 Udayana 521
  Laksanavali (karl H. Potter) 523
  Laksanamala (S. Subramanya Sastri) 525
  Atmatattvaviveka (V. Varadachari) 526
  Nyayakusumanjali (karl H. Potter and Sibajiban Bhattacharya) 557
  Nyayaparisista 588
  Nyayavarttikataparyatikaparsuddhi 588
  Kiranavali (B.K. Matilal) 589
30 Aparajadeva 603
  Nyayamuktavali (S. Subrahmanya Sastri) 604
31 Srikantha 612
32 The Vrttikara 612
33 Vallabha 613
  Nyayalitavati (J.N. Mohanty) 613
34 Varadaraja 629
  Tarkikarakasa with Sarasamgraha (karl H. Potter) 629
  Nyayakusumanjalibodhani (G.Bhattacharya) 640
35 Sivaditya 642
  Saptapadarthi (karl H. Potter) 643
  Nyayamala (S. Subramanya Sastri) 645
36 Vadindra 646
  Mahavidyavidambana (E.R. Sreekrishna Sarma) 647
  Krianavalidarpana (G. Bhattacharya) 652
  Kandasutranibandha 658
37 Bhatta Raghava 659
38 Divakara 659
39 Vadi Vagisvara 660
40 Narayana Sarvajna 663
41 Kesava Misra 663
  Trakabhasa (karl H. potter) 664
42 Anandanubhava 667
43 Prabhakaropadhyaya 667
44 Abhayatilaka 668
45 Sondadopadhyaya 668
46 Manikantha Misra 668
  Nyayaratna (V. Varadachari) 669
47 Sasadhara 682
  Nyayasidhantadipa 682
48 Tarani Misra 684
49 Jagadguru 684
50 Ravisvara 685
51 Nyayabhaskarakara 685
52 Visnumisra 685
53 Vidyadharamisra 685
54 Srikara 685
55 Bharadvajavrttikara 685
56 Candrananda 685
  Notes 687
  Index 717


Sample Pages


This volume summaries what we know of early Advaita Vedanta upto the Samkara's pupils, Suresvara, Padmapada, Totaka and Hanstamalaka. An analytical introduction by the editor introduces the reader to the concepts utilized by Gaudapada, Samkaracarya and Mandana Misra in expounding and defending the Advaita view. This is followed by summaries of all the authentic Advaita works of these authors, together with those of Suresvara and Padmapada as well as a number of other works which have been attributed to Samkara, Totaka and Hastamalaka. This volume is divided into two parts and is enriched with an elaborate Introduction discussing briefly the history of the school its theories of value, language and relations and its metaphysics and epistemology.

About the Author:

Karl H. Potter is Professor of Philosophy and south Asian Studies at the University of Washington, and is General Editor of the present series, which attempts to summarily present the thought of all the great philosophical systems of India.



This volume, the third in the Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, is the first of those devoted to the philosophy of Advaita Vedanta. It covers the writings of Gaudapada, Samkaracarya, Mandana Misra and Samkara’s pupils: Suresvara, Padmapada, Totaka, and Hastamalaka (the last according to traditional authorities only).

The remarks offered in the preface to volume two in this series relating to the general intent of the Encyclopedia apply to this volume and others to follow. To review briefly: this volume is intended, not as a definitive study of the works summarized, but as an invitation to further philosophical attention to them. The plan has been to make available the substance of the thought contained in these works, so that philosophers unable to read the original Sanskrit and who find difficulty in understanding and finding their way about in the translations (where such exist) can get an idea of the positions taken and arguments offered. The summaries, then, are intended primarily for philosophers and only secondarily for Indologists, and certain sections of the works have been omitted or treated sketchily because they are repetitious or deemed less interesting for philosophers, though they may be of great interest to Sanskritists. I might also add that the summaries are not likely to make interesting consecutive reading; they are provided in the spirit of a reference work. It is hoped, on the other hand, that the editor’s Introduction will provide a readable account of some of the pertinent features of Advaita Vedanta for those hitherto unacquainted with that system of thought.

Preparation of this volume has been assisted materially by the gracious assistance provided by several agencies and individuals. The Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of the U.S. Depart men of State, represented by Ms. Evelyn Barnes, kindly provided the project a generous grant in PL-480 rupees to cover preparation of this and other volumes. This grant made possible contacts with Indian colleagues and provided honoraria for a number of the summaries here included. The grant has been administered through the American Institute of Indian Studies, which has provided generous assistance in easing administrative details connected with the gathering of summaries, in arranging editorial travel and consultation, and in providing secretarial assistance and supplies. I wish especially to thank Pradip R. Mehendiratta and Edward C. Dimock for their good offices. In 1975 I received a fellowship from the American Council of Learned Societies through the Joint Committee on South Asia of the American Council of Learned Societies and Social Science Research Council that enabled me to make use of the unparalleled collections at the India Office Library and British Museum in London, without which opportunity a number of the summaries could not have been completed and much scholarly information could not have been conveyed or alluded to through references.

I wish to thank James Settle of the American Council of Learned Societies as well as the authorities and staff members at the libraries mentioned. Finally, there are several individual scholars who are probably not aware of the extent of their contribution to this volume through their helpful and provocative conversation with me over the years in connection with Advaita. I wish especially to record my appreciation and debt to Anthony J. Alston, Daniel H. H. Ingalls, T. R. V. Murti, and Allen W. Thrasher for sharing their scholarship and thought with me. I am, needless to say, responsible for all misinterpretation of the materials that have crept into what follows.


1. Historical Resume 3
2. Theory of Value 22
3. Philosophy of Language 46
4. Identity and Difference: The Theory of Relations 62
5. Advaita Metaphysics 74
6. Advaita Epistemology 92
1. Gaudapada 103
Gaudapadakarikas, or Agamasastra (Karl H. Potter) 105
2. Samkara 115
Brahmasutrabhasya (Karl H. Potter) 119
Brahadaranyakopanisadbhasya (Karl H. Potter) 180
Taittriyopanisadbhasya (Karl H. Potter) 204
Upadesasahasri (Karl H. Potter) 217
Chandogyopanisadbhasya (Karl H. Potter) 254
Aitareyopanisadbhasya (Karl H. Potter) 270
Isopanisadbhasya (Karl H. Potter) 278
Kathopanisadbhasya (Karl H. Potter) 280
Kenopanisatpadabhasya (Karl H. Potter) 281
Mundakopanisadbhasya (Karl H. Potter) 284
Prasnopanisadbhasya (Karl H. Potter) 289
Bhagavadgitabhasya (Karl H. Potter) 294
Mandukyopanisadbhasya with Gaudapadakarikabhasya (Karl H. Potter) 308
Daksinamurtistotra (Karl H. Potter) 317
Pancikarana (Karl H. Potter) 318
Aparoksanubhuti (Karl H. Potter) 320
Atmabodha (Karl H. Potter) 323
Satasloki (Karl H. Potter) 324
Balabodhini, or Atmajnanopadesavidhi (Karl H. Potter) 326
Atmanatmaviveka (Karl H. Potter) 328
Tattvabodha (Karl H. Potter) 331
Dasasloki (Karl H. Potter) 333
Vakyavrtti (Karl H. Potter) 334
Vivekacudamani (Karl H. Potter) 335
Sarvavedantasiddhantasarasamgraha (Karl H. Potter) 339
Advaitapancaratna, or Atmapancaka (K. Raghavan Pillai) 343
Vakyassudha, or Drgdrsyaviveka 344
Upadesapancaka 344
Mayapancaka 344
Laghuvakyavrtti 345
Commentaries on other Upanisads 345
3. Mandana Misra 346
Brahmasiddhi (Allen W. Thrasher) 347
4. Suresvara 420
Brhadaranyakopanisadbhasyavarttika (S. Subrahmanya Sastri) 420
Taittiriyopanisadbhasyavarttika (Karl H. Potter) 521
Naiskarmyasiddhi (Karl H. Potter) 530
Daksinamurtivarttika, or Manasollasa (Karl H. Potter) 550
Pancikaranavarttika, or Pranavavarttika (Karl H. Potter) 560
5. Padmapada 563
Pancapadika (Karl H. Potter) 564
6. Totaka, or Trotaka, 598
Srutisarasamuddharana (Karl H. Potter) 598
7. Hastamalaka 601
Hastamalakaslokah (Edeltraud Harzer) 601


Sample Pages


Samkhya is one of India’s oldest philosophical systems, and this volume of the Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, coedited by Gernald James Larson and Ram Shankar Bhattacharya, and under the general editorship of Karl H.Potter, traces the history of the system from its beginnings in the third or fourth century. The volume includes a lengthy Introduction (written by G.J. Larson) which discusses the history of the system and its philosophical contours overall. The remainder of the volume includes summaries in English of all extant Sanskrit texts of the Samkhya system. Many of the summaries are of texts that have never been edited, translated of studied before, most notably extensive treatments of the Yuktidipika, the samkhyavrtti and the Samkhyasaptativrtti. The volume is designed for philosophers, cultural historians and students of comparative studies generally. In addition, since the volume contains so much material that also prove to be of interest to area specialists, Indologists and Sanskritists.

Gerald James Larson is professor of the history of religions, Department of religions studies, university of California, Santa Barbara, USA. He is the author of Classical Samkhya: An Interpretation of its History and meaning (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1979; revised second edition); Myth in Indo-European Antiquity (coedited with C.scott Littleton and J. Puhvel, University of California press, 1974); and In her Image (coedited with P. Pal and R. Gowen, regents of the University of California, 1980); and numerous articles on Indian philosophy and religion.

Ram Shankar Bhattacharya is editor of the journal Purana; senior research scholar in the all India Kashiraj Trust, Fort Ramnagar, Varanasi; and was for some years in the research department of Sampurnananda Sanskrit University, Varanasi, he is the author of numerous editions, translations and studies of original Sanskrit texts in Hindi, Bengali, Sanskrit and English.



Many years ago when I met the great Gopinath kaviraj for the first time in Varanasi, he inquired about my word. I commented that I was working on one of the ancient systems of Indian philosophy, namely, the Samakhya. He impatiently waved his hand to interrupt me. "Samkhya," he said, "is not one of the systems of Indian philosophy. Sankhya is the philosophy of India!" He was referring, of course, to the ancient period, but he also went on to stress the remarkable influence that Samkhya has had on almost every phase of Indian culture and learning. Philosophy, mythology, theology, law, medicine, art, and the various traditions of Yoga and Tantra have all been touched by the categories and basic notions of the Samkhya. This is not at all to claim that these various areas of learning and cultural practice have accepted the dualist metaphysics of Samkhya or its overall classical systematic formulation. To the contrary, there have been intense polemics over the centuries against the Samkhya position. What is striking, however, is the ubiquitous presence of the Samkhya network of notions, functioning almost as a kind of cultural “code” (to use a semiotics idiom) to which intellectuals in every phase of cultural life in India have felt a need to respond.

The present volume of the Encyclopedia of Indian philosophies attempts to trace the history and to interpret the meaning of Samkhya philosophy from its beginnings in the ancient period to the present time, a period of some twenty- five hundred years. As might well be imagined, it has not been an easy task to accomplish this in one volume. Ram Shankar Bhattacharya and I have had to make some difficult editorial decisions by way of limiting the boundaries of our undertaking. One such decision concerned the manner in which we would treat ancient and/or "popular" (Nontechnical) Samkhya passages. For a time we considered the possibility of including summaries of Samkhya passages in the Upanisads, the Mahabharata (including the Bhagavadgita), the Puranas, the medical literature, and so forth. As we proceeded in our work, however, it became clear that these passages could be best treated in the Introduction to the present volume. More than that, it became clear that these passages represent what could be called "Proto-Samkhya" and should be clearly distinguished from what we are calling in the present volume "Pre-Karika-Samkhya." "karika-samkhya," "Patanjala- samkhya," "Karika-Kaumudi-samkhya," "Samasa-Samkhya," and "sutra-samkhya" (and see Introduction).

A second editorial decision concerned the manner in which we would deal with the extensive number of passages in Indian philosophical literature that criticize Samkhya from the perspective of other traditions, passages, for example, from Nyaya, vaisesika, Buddhist Jaina, Mimamsa, and Vedanta works. Again, for a time we considered the possibility of including at least some of these passages, but we ultimately determined that such passages appropriately belong in their own respective volumes in the Encyclopedia series and not in the Samkhya volume itself.

A third editorial decision concerned the manner in which we would deal with the issue of the literature of Yoga. Our own view is that "Patanjala-Samkhya" is an important type of samkhya philosophy and deserves to be treated as such, but we encountered the practical difficulty of some seventy Sanskrit texts on Yoga that should be considered. The only sensible solution appeared to be, therefore, to prepare a separate volume of the Encyclopedia series for the Yoga materials with appropriate cross-references in both the samkhya and Yoga volumes. Eventually, then, when both volumes are published, they can be used in tandem.

Apart from such external editorial decisions, that is to say, what to exclude from the volume, we also had to make a number of decisions regarding the internal boundaries of the volume. It was obvious from the beginning, for example, that three of our texts required special treatment, namely, the Samkhyakarika, the Tattvasamasasutra, and the Samkhyasutra. These are the three fundamental and primary texts of the tradition upon which most other texts are based, and each presented a unique problem. Because the Samkhyakarika is the oldest systematic text available, we thought it appropriate to present an extensive treatment of it. Indeed, the so-called "summary" of the Samkhyakarika in the volume is considerably longer than the original text itself! In our view, however, since our task was not that of translation but, rather, that of presenting an overview of te systematic philosophical arguments in the text, we felt justified in taking some liberties in unpacking those arguments. Regarding the Tattvasamasasutra, the problem was the reverse. The tattvasamasa is not really a text in any sense. It is a checklist of topics upon which several commentaries have been written. We have, therefore, presented it in its entirety as a checklist. The samkhyasutra, as is well known, is a late compilation, and there is no authoritative tradition either for the sequence of sutras or their interpretation apart from the reading and interpretation offered, first, by Aniruddha, and then later by Vijnanabhiksu (who generally follows Aniruddha, throughout). We have, therefore, presented the sutras themselves in a bare, outline form. We have, therefore, presented the sutras themselves in a bare, outline form. We have, then, presented a full summary of Aniruddha’s reading and interpretation followed by a shorter summary of Vijnanabhiksu’s reading and interpretation (stressing only those views of vijnanabhiksu that clearly differ from Aniruddha).

In three instances in the volume we have presented unusually detailed summaries, namely, those for the Samkhyavrtti, the samkhyasaptativrtti, and the Yuktidipika. The former two texts are those recently edited by Esther A. Solomon, and because they have been unknown in Samkhya studies until now, we invited Professor Solomon to prepare full treatments of both. The latter text, the Yuktidipika, is undoubtedly the most important text for understanding the details of the Samkhya system, but until now no translation has been available. We thought it appropriate, therefore, to include as full a treatment of it as possible. The summary of the Yuktidipika in this volume is not by any means exhaustive, but it does provide a wealth of information that has until now been unavailable.

Dr. Ram Shankar Bhattacharya and I would like to take this opportunity to thank all of those who helped to bring this volume to completion. First, of course, our thanks to the many contributors (see list of contributors) who prepared the published summaries. Second, a special word of thanks and acknowledgement to those who prepared summaries of passages that could not be included in the final published version of the volume- passages, for example, from Jaina, Buddhist, or epic literature that, based on our final editorial decisions, finally fell outside of the boundaries of the volume, or summaries in which it became apparent that a particular text was simply repeating what had been said earlier in terms of philosophical interpretation. In this regard, we would like to thank and acknowledge the help of Dr. Biswanath Bhattacharya (Calcutta Sanskrit college), Dr. Sabhajit misra (university of Gorakhpur), Dr.R.K.Tripathi (Banaras Hindu university), and Dr. S.P. Verm a (kuruksetra university).

Several research assistants have helped us in our work along the way, and we would like to thank and acknowledge them as well: Dr. Jayandra soni, formerly of Banaras Hindu University and currently at Mcmaster University in Ontario, Canada; Dr. James McNamara, former doctoral students in religious studies at the University of California, santa Barbara. Also, a special word of thanks for the research assistance of Dr. Edeltraud Harzer, of the Unirersity of Washington, seattle. Our thanks, furthermore, to the American Institute of Indian studies and the Indo-U.S. Subcommission for Education and culture for financial assistance to our various contributors and to the coeditors, and, finally, our thanks and appreciation to Karl H. potter for his continuing patience, encouragement, and help in his capacity as general editor of the Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies.

For the nonspecialist reader of the volume, it should be noted that the Index provides brief definitions of many technical Samkhya terms before listing page numbers and may be used, therefore, as a glossary for those unfamiliar with the Sanskrit terminology of the Samkhya system. An additional glossary for classical Samkhya terminology may also be found in Gerald J.Larson, Classical samkhya (2nd edition, Delhi: motilal Banarsidass, 1979), pp. 237-247.

Full diacritical marks are given only for all primary entries of texts and authors in the volume. In the case of modern Indian scholars, namely, authors of secondary work, summarizers, and other contributors, names are cited without diacritical marks, in accordance with current convention in modern India, Likewise, the names of modern Indian cities are given without diacritical marks.




Preface   xi
Part one :    
  Introduction to the philosophy of Samkhya (Gerald James Larson)  
  The History and Literature of Samkhya 3
I. Proto-Samkhya and Pre-Karika-Samkhya 3
II. The Samkhya Textual Tradition 14
  Karika-Samkhya and Patanjala-Samkhya 18
  Karika-kaumudi-Samkhya 29
  Samasa-Samkhya 32
  Sutra-Samkhya 35
  The philosophy of Samkhya 43
  Preliminary Remarks 43
I. Samkhya as Enumeration 48
II. Samkhya as process materialism 65
III. Samkhya as contentless consciousness 73
IV. Samkhya as rational reflection 83
Part Two :    
  Summaries of works  
1. Kapila 107
2. Asuri 107
3. Pancasikha 113
4. Sastitantra 125
5. Paurika 129
6. Pancadhikarana 129
7. Patanjali (the Samkhya teacher) 129
8. Varsaganya 131
9. Vindhyavasin 141
10. Madhava 147
11. Isvarakrsna 149
  Samkhyakarika (karl H.potter; Gerald J. Larson) 149
12. Patanjali (the Yoga teacher) 165
13. Suvarnasaptati (G.J.Larson) 167
14. Samkhyavrtti (Esther A. Solomon) 179
15 Samkhasaptativrtti E.A. Solomon) 193
16. Gaudapada 209
  Samkhyakarikabhasya (G.J.Larson) 210
17. Vyasa, or Vedavyasa 225
18. Yuktidipika (Raghunatha Sharma, Dayanand Bhargava, and shiv kumar sharma) 227
19. Jayamangald (Ram Shankar Bhattacharya) 271
20. Samkara 289
21. Matharavrtti (Harsh Narain) 291
22. Vacaspati Misra 301
  Tattvakaumudi (G.J. Larson) 301
  Tattvavaisaradi 312
23. Bhojaraja 313
24. Tattvasamasasutra 315
25. Kramadipika (Anima Sen Gupta) 321
26. Samkhyasutra 327
27. Aniruddha 333
  Samkhayasutravrtti (G.J. Larson) 333
28. Vijnanabhiksu 375
  Samkhyapravacanabhasya (Sangamlal Pandey) 376
  Samkhyasara (R.S. Bhattacharya) 401
  Yogavarttika, Yogasarasamgraha 412
29. Bhavaganesa 413
  Tattvayatharthyadipana (Kapil Deo Pandey) 413
30. Mahadeva Vedantin 417
31. Svayamprakasayati 419
  Gunatrayaviveka (R.S. Bhattachary) 419
32. Narayanatirtha 421
  Samkhyacandrika (A. Sen Gupta) 421
33. Nagoji Bhatta 429
34. Vamsidhara Misra 431
  Tattvavibhakara (Kedaranatha Tripathi and R.S. Bhattacharya) 431
35. Simananda 443
  Samkhyatattvavivecana (A. sen Gupta) 443
36. Sarvopakarinitika (K.D. Pandey) 445
37. Samkhyasutravivarana (A. Sen Gupta) 447
38. Kaviraja Yati 449
39. Mudumba Narasimhasvamin 451
  Samkhyataruvasanta (R.S. Bhattacharya) 451
40. Raghunatha Tarkavagisa 459
41. Devatirtha Svamin 461
42. Taranatha tarkavacaspati 463
  Upodghata (R.S. Bhattacharya) 463
43. Narendranatha Tattvanidhi 465
44. Bharati Yati 467
  Tattvakaumudivyakhya (E.A. Solomon) 467
45. Pramathanatha Tarkabhusana 473
  Amala (Kalidas Bhattacharya) 473
46. Krsnanatha Nyayapancanana 487
  Avaranavarini (K.D. Bhattacharya) 488
47. Hariprasada 501
  Samkhyasutravrtti (R.S. Bhattacharya) 501
48. Balarama Udasina 509
  Vidvattosini (R.S. Bhattachayra) 509
49. Pancanana Tarkaratna 521
  purnima (K.D. Bhattacharya) 521
50. Kunjavihari Tarkasiddhanta 545
  Tattvabodhini (Prabal kumar Sen) 445
51 Krsnavallabhacarya 451
  Kiranavali (R.S. Bhattacharya) 451
  Samkhyakarikabhasya (A. Sen Gupta) 554
52. Rajesvara sastrin Dravida 559
  Tattvakaumuditika (R.S. Bhattacharya) 559
53. Ramesacandra Tarkatirtha 563
  Gunamayi (K.D. Bhattacharya) 563
54. Kalipada Tarkacarya 577
  Saraprabha (R.S. Bhattacharya) 577
55. Hariharananda Aranya 581
  Samkhyatattvaloka (R.S. Bhattacharya) 581
56. Harirama Sukla 591
  Susama (R.S Bhattacharya) 591
57. Sivanarayana Sastrin 599
  Sarabodhini (A. Sen Gupta) 599
58. Naraharinatha 611
59 Sitarama Sastri 613
60. Brahmamuni 615
61. Kesava 617
62. Krsna Misra 617
63. Samkhayaparibhasa 617
64. M.V. Upadhyaya 619
65. Sri Rama Pandeya 621
Notes   623
Index   661


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