Indian Philosophy (3 Vols. Set)

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Indian Philosophy (3 Vols. Set)
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Dr. Jadunath Sinha's significant work on Indian Philosophy in three volumes deals with the subject comprehensively. His treatment closely follows the basic texts of the various schools, which is a unique feature of the work. The topics included in the volumes are as under:

Volume I : The major and minor Upanisads; Epics; Puranas; Gita, Carvaka, Vaisesika; Nyaya; Navya Nyaya; Mimamsa; Sabdika. 

Volume II : Samkhya; Yoga; Jaina; Early Buddhism; School of Buddhism; Background of Vedanta; Advaita; Bhagavad Gita; Bhagavata; Pancaratra; Ramanuja; Madhva; Nimbarka; Vallabha; Caitanya; Saivism and Saktaism.

Volume III : Bhaskara; Kasmira Saiva; Pasupata; Saiva Siddhanta; Srikantha; Vira Saiva; Post-Sankara Advaita 


About the Author


 Jadunath Sinha (1892-1978) was a mystic philosopher and one of the most eminent and profound thinkers of today. He wrote practically on all aspects and schools of Indian Philosophy in his voluminous works. He was a brilliant researcher and also did pioneer work in Indian Psychology in 3 Vols. he taught in several colleges in Bengal for short period before joining Meerut Collage as Professor of Philosophy, where he remained for a number of years and at last resigned in order to devote whole of his time to writing and research. 





Divine inspiration has been the source of intuitive knowledge and Sanskrit texts have been the source of my scriptural knowledge. I had spiritual experiences throughout my life and cannot deny the existence of one Infinite Spirit being expressed in the world and revealed to the finite spirits in various ways as Impersonal Light of Consciousness or Personal God bestowing His grace on them and granting them blessedness.

Sri Sri Bamdev (Barna Ksepa) the great Sakta saint of Tarapith (West Bengal) gave me the spiritual luster in this life, guided and instructed me to write the volumes of Indian Philosophy, Indian Psychology, Vaishnav Vedanta, Comparative Religion including my own reflections on philosophy-Moral Idealism & Theism. I felt from the core of my heart that Barna Ksepa whom I saw thrice before I was fifteen years old was identical with the Divine Mother. I saw him in vision several times. He saved my life and saved my wife's life miraculously. His influence in my life is the greatest and deepest. I have done all that is good and noble under his influence. He has made me feel the presence of Divine Mother within me and outside me.

I had visions of great saints like Sarnkara, Ramanuja, Nimbarka and others who prompted me in early thirties and later in early fifties to write their philosophy.

I have loved Chaitanya from my youth to old age. He represents the culture in which I have been born, breathed and lived. He is my very own. I accept his love for God and love for humanity as the goal of my life. In 1958 I saw the Image of Chaitanya near the grave of Haridas Gosvami, a Muslim disciple of Chaitanya. I looked at the image with intent eyes. Two rays of light issued out of the eyes of Chaitanya and entered into my eyes. They penetrated the pupils and entered into my heart. Profuse tears trickled down my cheeks and flooded my chest. I asked him two questions, and he answered them unequivocally. He gave me the glimpse of my past and future. I felt the span of 500 years wiped off between Him and me.

In 1957 at Dwarka I had a spiritual vision of Krishna as an Image of Light. It was a direct, immediate, certain vision. It was spiritual illumination. Krishna revealed Himself to me His real nature and blessed my life. I felt blessed, thrice blessed by the idol of my heart. I felt living in company with Him. It was enchanting and entrancing. My soul was a thirst for such heavenly beauty. It Was a splendid vision not a dream? I felt absorbed in a spiritual world where time and space were non-existent.

In 1959 I got a message from Sri Aurobindo: 'Your total transformation is necessary for the uplift of humanity. You should recite the mantra I gave you in addition to what your Master gave you. 1 am Krishna. I am Chaitanya. Your wife had self-realization before her death.' I heard the voice as clear and distinct, and understood its significance for me. I was transported to a state of spiritual exaltation while I was alone in a room. It was full of silence deep and unfathomable. I realized that Sri Aurobindo came for the regeneration of humanity, freedom of all nations, bringing down God on the earth, and elevating humanity. There has been a link between his soul and my soul throughout my life.

In March 1959 I had been to Tarapith, Divine Mother Tara appeared in dream and asked me to see Her. Mother Tara gave me a message in distinct and natural voice in broad day light. She has been my family deity. I felt blessed and self-fulfilled. Mother Tara filled my inner being with divine consciousness. Within my inner being there was Mother-consciousness, outside my being there wall Mother-consciousness. I was united with my Divine Mother, Mother of human beings and the universe. It was manifestation of the most holy, uplifting, elevating and sanctifying.

Gradually my love and devotion for Chaitanya was transformed unconsciously into devotion and love for the Divine Mother. My visits to Mother Kali at Dakshineswar worshipped by Sri Rama Krishna and Mother Tara at Tarapith worshipped by Sri Bamdev aroused and intensified my Mother-consciousness. I love Divine Mother firmly and deeply I love all men and women, and their being saved by Her from nuclear destruction, and gradually evolving a new human society enjoying world-peace. Humanity will be re-oriented to a New Order based on love and good will.

The act of translating Rama Prasad's Devotional Songs into English was an act of devotion and spiritual communion with Divine Mother. Deep mysteries of Sakti-sadhana are expounded in the songs. I was so stirred with the Divine-Mother-consciousness that I dreamt a small image of Kali within my spinal cord at a centre parallel to the centre of my chest. It was a beautiful image.

Spiritual discipline transforms the body and the inner con- sciousness. Subtle processes are initiated by uttering Holy name of God, or even by thinking of God intensely with all one's heart. The entire cerebro-spinal system is transformed, The mind is Automatically turned inward, concentrated on the Divine without, and within, in the world and in the heart. Whether the Divine is. Father or Mother is immaterial. God is experienced as Divine Father and men and women are experienced as brothers and sisters. Or God is experienced as Divine Mother and all persons are ex- perienced as children. One saturated with God consciousness can purify and sanctify others.

I believe in Moral Idealism, and evolution of human society based on God-consciousness, brotherhood of man, Fatherhood of God or Motherhood of Divine Spirit. I believe in human society to be a moral order or commonwealth of Spirits with God as the guide interacting with inner spirits with unique purposes, which are moments of Divine Purpose. I believe History as the gradual unfoldrnent of Divine Plan. Social evolution is a spiral movement with ups and down due to interplay of real human freedom. I believe in gradual manifestation of the Divine in an individual and col- lective society and humanity and evolution of divinity in humanity, spiral elevation of humanity. I believe in morality as an indispensible requisite for spirituality.

Theistic humanism and world-peace to which I have devoted fifty years of my life, shunned luxury, undergone penances, studied, meditated, and disseminated knowledge, went to pilgrimages, and resorted to saints, yogis and seers. I have shown the ways of mystical union with the source of the eternal bliss and acquiring intuitive knowledge.

On October 10, 1959 I was meditating on my Divine Mother at my eye-brow centre. One fair beautiful foot of Divine Mother Durga flashed on the centre. Immediately after another similar foot flashed at its side. They were tinged with red colour at the fringes. Light issued out of them and spread over my body. Light streamed out of it upward, downward, in all directions. The entire universe became sea of light-light, light, moving, surging, light. There were no centres of light, foci of consciousness. One mass of light of consciousness, subject-objectless consciousness. I forgot myself, I forgot the world, I forgot God, a personal God. One all- engulfing consciousness. It was not myself. One Infinite Conscious- ness. It was spiritual illumination. I have had no such mystical ex- perience in my life so far. How long such experience continued, when it vanished, when I regained my normal consciousness I do not know. Breath-control continued in my body. Subtle processes continued with my body. Body-mind-consciousness vanished in illumination.

I heard the voice of silence. There was perfect silence, palpable silence. Yet It was not ernptyness. It was inner nature, quietness of mind, silence of spirit in union with the Divine. It was perfect communion of my soul with the Divine Spirit.

I feel from the depth of my heart that spiritual enlightenment will dawn upon the teachers, students and genuine saints who will have mystic experience of spiritual truths and spiritual glory of the world will be revived.

This book will be published in several volumes. The first edition of the book was published under title 'History of Indian Philosophy'. The first volume deals with the evolution of religious and spiritual thought and philosophical speculation from the principal Upanisads to the Puranas and the Gitas through the Manusamhita, the Mahahharata, the Ramayana, and the minor Upanisads, traces the germs of different systems to the Upanisads, explains the ideas common to them, and treats of the Carvaka , the Vaisesika, the Nyaya, the Navya Nyaya, the Mimamsa, the Sabdika systems.

The book is based on the study of the original texts. It deals with the Epistemology, Logic, Ontology, Psychology, Ethics and Theology of the different systems, though it specializes in their Ontology. It gives comprehensive accounts of the Carvaka, the Vaisesika, the Nyaya, and the Navya Nyaya Logic of Gangesa. It deals with Bhartrhari's linguistic monism as expounded in his Vakyapadiya (Brahrnakanda), which is a unique type of philosophy. lt elaborately discusses the theistic proofs of the later Vaisesika, the Nyaya, the Navya Nyaya of Gangesa , and their refutation of the antitheistic objections of the atheists. The psychological topics are elaborately discussed in my Indian Psychology published in three volumes. The treatment of each topic is historical. The views of different eminent philosophers of different schools in their historical development are noted. Western analogues are mentioned but not elaborately owing to shortness of space. Brief critical estimates of different systems are given at the end of different chapters.

I acknowledge my indebtness to Sir Brojendranath Seal, whose The Syllabus of Indian Philosophy provided the outline of this book and its arrangement of topics, Mahamohopadhyaya Phani Bhusana Tarkavagisa whose volumes on Nyaya Darsana (Bengali) greatly helped me in comprehending the ancient Nyaya system, and Pandit Heramba Nath Tarkatirtha who kindly helped me through the difficult texts of Vatsyayanahhasya (last chapter), Nyayamanjuri, Nyayakusumanjali, Atmatattavaviveka and Tattvacintami. I acknowledge my gratitude to Prof. Sushil Kumar Maitra, and Prof. Haridas Bhattacharjee, who helped me with valuable suggestions.

The Second volume of Indian Philosophy deals with the Samkhya, the Yoga, Jainism, early Buddhism, the Schools of Buddhism, the philosophies of the Rg-Veda, the Upanisads, Gaudapada, the Yogavasistha, and the Vedanta systems of Samkara. The second edition is thoroughly revised rewritten and enlarged. Special topic on Yoga has been incorporated from my monograph 'Yoga' published earlier.

My thanks to my grandchildren Aparna, Anjan, Anita anti Aniruddha who constantly attended me in myoId age while I was busy in writing the manuscripts.

My special thanks to my son Amiya Kumar Sinha, Executive Director, Jadunath Sinha Foundation who prompted me to write the volumes and took great pains to get the first edition of the book published and further helped me in writing the manuscripts of all the volumes including my own reflections to philosophy-Moral Idealism & Theism.



This volume elaborately has with the Samkhya, the Yoga, Jainism, early Buddhism, the Schools of Buddhism, the Philosophies of the Rig-Veda, the Upanishad, Gaudapada, the Yogavasistha, the Bhagavad-Gita, the Bhagavata, and the Pancaratra, the Vedanta systems of Samkara, Bhaskara, Yadava- prakasa, Ramanuja, Madhva, Nimbarka, Vallabha, Caitanya, Jiva Goswami, and Baladeva Vidyabhusana, Saivism and Saktaism. The treatment of all the systems is based upon the original Sanskrit texts. Only the Chapter on Early Buddhism is based on the authoritative English translations of the Pali texts.

The first volume will be published shortly. It deals with the remaining systems in a comprehensive manner.

I acknowledge my indebtedness to T.W. Rhys Davids, Mrs. Rhys Davids, A.B.Keith, Anand Coomarswami, L.P.Narasu, S.N. Das Gupta, Deussen, and K.C. Bhattacharya in writing this volume. It is intended for the advanced students of the Indian and foreign Universities.





"A History of Indian Philosophy," Vol. I written by the present author elaborately deals with the philosophies of the Upanisads, the Epics. The Puranas, and the Gitas, the common ideas in Indian philosophy, and the philosophies of the Carvakas. the Vaisesika, the Nyaya. the Navya Nyaya, the Mimamsa, and the Sabdika- Bhartrhari. The second volume elaborately deals with the philosophies of the Samkhya, the Yoga. the Jaina. early Buddhism, the schools of Buddhism. the foundation of the Advaita Vedanta of Samkara, and the foundation of theistic Vedanta. It contains also brief treatment of the philosophies of Bhaskara. Yadavaprakasa , Ramanuja. Nimbarka, Vallabha, Caitanya, Jiva Gosvami and Baladeva Vidyabhusana.

The present third volume elaborately deals with the philosophies of Bhaskara (900 A D.). The Pratyabhijna school of Saivism (Kashmir Saivism] (800-1000). The Pasupata (100 A: D.-IOOO A.D.), the Saiva Sidhhanta (Southern Saivism) (1100-1300 A.D.). the Saiva Visistadvajtavada of Srikantha (1300A.D'.) Vira Saivism. Sripati Pandita's (1400 A.D.) Saivism, and the problems of the post-Sarnkara Advaitaviida (900-1700 A.D).

A general account of the fundamental problems of epistemology, metaphysics, morality and religion based 0n the original Sanskrit works 'is given here. Criticisms of the rival schools by each system are given for clear comprehension of it. Detailed references are given. and Sanskrit texts are profusely quoted at the end to stimulate the readers to study them and form their own opinions of the different systems. Saivism in the Upanisads and the Puranas is considered in "History of Indian Philosophy" Vol. 1.

Sakta monism has great resemblance to Pratyabhijna and Spanda schools of Saivism in their theoretical teachings and practical spiritual disciplines. They are allied systems as Utpaladeva distinctly mentions in his "Sivadrstivrtti." My brochure "Sakta Monism" will help the readers understand this interesting subject. My English translation of "Rama Prasada's Devotional Songs" explains Kundaliniyoga adopted by Pratyabhijna Saivism, Vira Saivism of Sripati Pandita and Advaitavadins. The songs show how normal human life is transformed into divine life in Sakta religion' by harmonizing works and devotion with knowledge. and enjoyment with renunciation.

Though the different schools of Saivism discuss the thirty six principles, their funda- mental philosophical standpoints are different. Pratyabhijna Saivism is monistic while the 'Pasupata and Saiva Siddhanta are dualistic. Both Srikantha and Slipati Pandita are successors of Rarnanuja, and are profoundly influenced by his qualified monism (visistadaitavada), though their systems differ from Ramanuja's view on some points.

The schools of Saivism are more interested in religion than in metaphysics, and deal incidentally with metaphysical problems. But the post Samkara-Advaita Vedanta is equally interested in epistemology, metaphysics. dialectic refutation or' categories and concept. of rival schools, and rigorous spiritual discipline for the mystic intuition and realization of Brahman, though the modern exponents of Advaita Vedanta do not lay equal stress on its practical teachings. This book elaborately deals with the problems of Brahman, Isvara, jiva, Isvarasakin, jivasaksin, pratyagatman, saksin, ahamkara, avidya and maya, the locus and the object of avidya, the nature and the cessation of avidya, the nature of the world, its material cause and efficient cause, falsity of the world appearance, falsity of this falsity, Brahman as the truth and substratum of the world appearance, various theories of causation, three degrees of reality, the empirical reality of the world, the status. of the object, its externality, presentability and capacity for evoking responsive actions, and the relation of the empirical self to a mental mode and an external object. It deals with intrinsic validity of knowledge, extrinsic invalidity of knowledge, tests of truth, pramanas- perception, inference, comparison, testimony, presumption, and nonapprebension, the problem of induction, kinds of inference, and hypothetical reasoning (tarka). The Advaita Vedanta criticisms of Veisesika categories,-space, time, cause and effect, being, difference, negation, some important qualities and relations are given. This book discusses some important metaphysical problems like ekajivavada, bahujivavada, drstisrstivada, srstidrstivada, eka-avidyavada, aneka-avidyavada, pratibimbavada, avacchedavada, a.bhasavada, sabdadvaitavada, bhavad-vaitavada, and the like. The Advaita Vedanta sceptics' criticisms of valid knowledge (prama), means of valid knowledge (pramana)-perception, inference, vyapti-, comparison, testimony, presumption, nonapprehension, and of illusion. doubt, recollection, recognition, and hypothetical reasoning are given. This book discusses some important relations such as those of the knower, knowledge and the known object, the agent, action and the object of action, the enjoyer, enjoyment and the object of enjoyment, and the signifier and the signified. It treats of the psychological problems of the difference between recollection and meditation, contemplation and meditation, knowledge and action, and verbal knowledge and immediate knowledge, of the epistemological problems of conflict among the pramanas, the superiority of scriptural testmony to perception in supersensible matters, the ontological validity of the Veda or Vedanta, and the empirical validity of the other prarnanas, of the ethical problem of moral imperative (niyogil), and of the religious problem of the relation of prudential duties, the occasional duties, the daily obligatory duties, and the specific duties pertaining to one's station in society and order of life to the knowledge of Brahman. It elaborately deals with hearing, reflection and meditation, the nature of liberation and its kinds, the external and the internal means to liberation, the stale of release, the mystic intuition of Brahman and becoming Brahman, the destruction of the mental mode assuming the form of Brahman or infinite bliss, and the like. It especially treats of the Advaitists' views, which have been severely criticized by the Ramanujists, the Nimbarkists, the Madhvas, the Vallabhites, and Jiva Gosvami, which will be discussed in the fourth, fifth and sixth volumes.

The spiritual disciplines of the different systems prescribed by them are expounded carefully, for the continuous and ardent practice of them is an indispensable prerequisite for the realization of the deep spiritual truths propounded by them. They should not be lightly treated by the modern generation of intellectuals. There are different kinds and degrees of experience. Spiritual truths are not empirically verifiable. But they are based on empirical facts, and grow out of them by transcending or transforming them gradually in the light of the higher experience. The higher life grows out of the gradual transcendence and transformation of our bodily consciousness, intellectual consciousness, moral conscious- ness, esthetic consciousness, and religious consciousness, the highest experience is a spiritual experience-an integral vision of all without negating anything. An all-embracing philosophy affirming and transforming our normal life including social life, national life, and international life call be built up on the basis of this experience. A new world order will be based on this experience. A new philosophy will be based on the mystic experience of the integral reality, which will be enlightened by the rational light of knowledge.

A brief critique of all the systems is given at the end. An elaborate criticism of the different topics in the different systems requires a decent volume. Criticisms of the divergent views of the coutemporat y scholars have been strictly avoided to keep the book within a modest compass.

The perusal of this book will bring to the mind of the readers of Western philosophy similar views of some Western philosophers. The views of some have simply been referred to. But quotations from their works have not been given, and similarities and dissimilarities have not been pointed out.

In chapters VII, VIII, IX and X the different views of the post-Sarnkara Advaira- vadins, Mandana Misra, Suresvara, Padmapada, Prakasatman and his followers (Vivarana school), and Vacaspari Misra and his followers (Bhamati school) under important topics are given. The Advaitists' criticisms of the Carvakas, the Madhyarnika, the Yogacara Vijnanavada, the Buddhist realists' doctrine of of momentariness, the Vaisesika doctrine of atomism, the Nyaya theory of self, . Kumarila and Prabhakara's theories of self, and their theories of liberation are given. An attempt has been made to make the treatment of the problems of Post Samkara Advaitavada comprehensive and critical from the Advaita standpoint.







The Philosophy of the Vedas
-The Philosophy of the Upanisads
-Nirguna Brahman
-Saguna Brahman or Isvara
-The Individual Soul (Jivatman)
-The Individual Self and the Supreme Self
-Bondage and Liberation : Vidya and Avidya
-The World
-The Philosophy of the Svetasvatara Upanisad
-The Germs of the Systems of Indian Philosophy in the Upanisads.


The Philosophical Basis of Saivism
-The Philosophical Basis of Saktaism
-The Philosophical Basis of Vaisnavism
-The Philosophical Basis of the cults of Ganesa, Surya and Rama
-Pure Monism
-The Ascetic Morality of the Minor Upanisads. 



-The Manusamhita
-The Mahabharata
-The Ramayana.



The Cults and Karmayoga, Bhaktiyoga and Jnanayoga in the Puranas
-Visnupurana : Visnuism : Triple Method
-Naradiya Purana : Visnuism : Triple Method
-Agneya Purana : Visnuism : Triple Method
-Kurmapurana : Saivism : Triple Method
-Garuda Purana :Saivism : Karma and Jnana
-Vayu Purana : Saivism : Jnanayoga
-Skanda Purana : Saivism : Jnanayoga
-Markendeya Purana ; Saktaism : Triple Method
-Devi Bhagavata : Saktaism : Triple Mehod
-Brahmavaivarta Purana : Krsnaism : The Cult of Devotion
-Bhagavata Purana : Krsnaism : The Cult of Devotion
-Narada Bhaktisutra : The Cult of Devotion
-Sandily Sutra : The Cult of Devotion
-The Ethics of the Puranas. 



The Bhagavad-Gita : Dualistic Monism : Triple Method
-Pure Monism : Jnanayoga.



The Spiritual Background of India Philosophy
-The Schools of Indian Philosophy
-The Common Ideas in the Systems of Indian Philosophy
-The Reality of the World
-The Reality of the Self
-The Law of Karma
-Initial Pessimism and Ultimate Optimism
-The Unity of Sadhana
-The Authority of the Vedas 



Materialism, Hedonism and Secularism
-The Demal of Causation
-The Denial of Inference
-The Denial of the Validity of the Vedas
-The Reality of the World : No Soul
-No Pre-existence and Future Life
-Criticism of the Carvaka doctrine of Accidentalism and Naturalism
-Criticism of the Carvaka doctrine of Consciousness
-Criticism of the Carvaka doctrine of Pre-existence
-Criticism of the Carvaka denial of Inference
-Criticism of the Carvaka denial of the validity of the Vedas.



-Extrinsic Validity and Invalidity of Knowledge (paratahpramanva)
-Criticism of the Mimamsa doctrine of Self-validity of Knowledge (svatahpramanya)
-Kinds of Invalid Knowledge (Avidya)
-Kinds of Valid Knowledge (Vidya)
-Inference (Anumana)
-The Buddhist doctrine of Vyapti
-The Vaisesika criticism of the Buddhist doctrine of Vyapti
-Comparison, Testimony, Presumption, Non-apprehension, Inclusion, Tradition and Gesture are not pramanas
-Ontology : The Categories
-Substance (Dravya)
-Quality (Guna)
-Action or Motion (Karma)
-Community (Samanya)
-The Vaisesika criticism of the Buddhist denial of Community
-Particularity (Visesa) Inherence (Samavaya)
-Non-existence (Abhava)
-The Philosophy of Nature
-Earth, Water, Fire and Air
-The Vaisesika Theory of Atomism
-The Nyaya theory of Atomism
-Ether (Akasa)
-Space (Dik)
-Time (Kala)
-The Vaisesika theory of Asatkarya-vada and criticism of Satkaryavada
-The Vaisesika cricticism of the Mimamsaka doctrine of causal power (sakti)
-The Different Kinds of Qualities
-The Philosophy of the Atman
-The Proofs for the existence of the Finite Self (Atman) and plurality of the Finite Souls
-The Qualities of the Finite Souls
-The Vaisesika criticism of Kumarila, Prabhakara and Samkara's views about the Knowledge of Cognition
-The Philosophy of God
-The Concept of God in the Vaisesika System
-The Theistic Proofs
-The Nature of God
-Moral and Non-moral Actions
-The Moral ends: Happiness and Liberation
-Duties and the Means Liberation
-Critical Estimate of the Vaisesika Philosophy.



Epistemology and Logic
-Valid Knowledge (Prama) : Instrument of Valid Knowledge (Pramana) : Extrinsic Validity (Paratah pramanya) : Tests of Truth (Pramanyagraha)
-The Nyaya Criticism of the Rival theories of Pramanya
-Perception (Pratyaksa) :Error (Viparyaya)
-Inference (Anumana) : Members (Avayava) : Kinds of Inference : Vyapti : Fallacies (Hatavabhasa)
-Philosophical Disputation (Katha), Quibbles (Chala), Sophistical Refutations (Jati), and Grounds of Defeat (Nigrahasthana)
-Doubt (Samsaya), Example (Drstanta), Accepted Tenet (Siddhanta), Hypothetical Reasoning (Tarka), and Ascertainment (Nirnaya)
-Comparison (Upamana)
-The World : Causality : Whole : Jati : Substance
-The Nyaya criticism of the Advaita Vedanta doctrine of Non-difference, and the doctrines of Eternity, Non-eternity, and Diversity of all things
-The Nyaya criticism of the Buddhist doctrine of Momentariness, Vijnanavada and Sunyavada
-The Proofs for the existence of the Finite Self (Atman)
-The Nature and Knowledge of the Finite Self : Pre-existence and transmigration
-Psychological Basis of Ethics : The End (Prayojana) : Virtues and Vices : Divine Law as the Moral Standard
-Liberation (Apavarga) and its Means
-The Nature of God and His relation to the World and Individual Souls : Theories of Creation
-The Nyaya criticism of the Vedanta view that Brahman is the material cause of the world
-The Nyaya  criticism of the Samkhya doctrine that Prakrti is the material cause of the world
-The Proofs for the existence of God
-The Nyaya refutation of Antitheistic Objections
-The Critical Estimate of the Nyaya Philosophy.



-The Means of Knowledge of Invariable Concomitance (vyaptigrahopaya)
-Hypothetical Reasoning (Tarka)
-Condition (Upadhi)
-Does Inference involve Petitio Principii?
-The Antitheistic Arguments
-The Theistic Argument



-The Nature of Valid Knowledge (Prama), the Means of Valid Knowledge (Pramana), Intrinsic Validity (svatahpramanya) of Knowledge, and Extrinsic Invalidity (paratah apramanya) of Knowledge
-Theories of Error : Psychology of Illusion
-Kumarila: The Categories
-Prabhakara: The Categories
-Kumarila : The Nature and Knowledge of the Self
-Prabhakara: The Nature and Knowledge of the Self
-Kumarila's theory of Inference of Cognition from Cognizedness of its object (Jnatatavada)
-Prabhakara's theory of Triple Perception (Triputipratyaksavada) : Theory of Knowledge
-Analysis of Voluntary Action
-Freedom of the Will
-The Means to Moksa
-General Estimate of the Mimamsa System



The Sabdika Philosophy
-The Buddhist and the Nyaya
-Vaisesika criticism of the Sabdika Philosophy








1. Introduction
2. Theory of Causation-Satkaryavada-Parinamavada
3. Prakrti
4. The Gunas
5. Evolution
6. Unconscious Teleology
7. Prakrti and its Evolutes
8. Space and Time
9. Purusa
10. Jiva
11. Purusa and Buddhi
12. Purusa and Prakrti
13. The Psychical Apparatus
14. Factors of Knowledge
15. The Source of Knowledge
16. Intrinsic Validity and invalidity of Knowledge
17. Theory of Error
18. Three Kinds of Pain (Duhkha)
19. Bondage (Bandha)
20. Liberation (Moksa)
21. The Means of Liberation
22. Future Life
23. Atheism
24. Critical Estimate



1. Introduction
2. Substance (Dharmin) and Mode (Dharma)
3. Whole (Avayavin) and Part (Avayava)
4. Different kinds of Modifications (Parinama)
5. Power and Causation (Satkaryavada)
6. Non-existence (Abhava)
7. Particularity (Visesa)
8. The Samkhya and the Yoga
9. The Place of God in the Yoga system
10. Proofs for the existence of God
11. The Nature of God
12. Valid Knowledge (Prama)
13. Three Kinds of Pramana
14. Sphotavada
15. Theory of Error
16. The Mind (Citta) and its Modes (Vrtti)
17. Afflictions (Klesa)
18. The Threefold Pain (Tapatraya)
19. Dispositions (Samskara)
20. The Levels of Attention (Cittabhumi)
21. The Path of Action (Kriyayoga)
22. The Path of Yoga (Yoganga)
23. Abhyasa and Vairagya
24. Kinds of Samadhi
25. Supernormal Powers
26. Karma and Transmigration
27. Liberation (Kaivalya)
28. Critical Estimate



1. Introduction
2. Relation to other Systems
3. Valid Knowledge (Pramana)
4. Perception (Pratyaksa)
5. Mediate Knowledge (Paroksa)
6. Anekantavada
7. The Doctrine of Nayas
8. Syadvada: Saptabhanginyaya
9. The Jaina refutation of one-sided (aikantika) positions
10. Substance, Attribute and Modification
11. Cause and Effect
12. The Soul (Jiva)
13. The Theory of Karma
14. Matter (Pudgala)
15. Dharma
16. Adharma
17. Space (Akasa)
18. Time (Kala)
19. The Nine Categories (Padartha)
20. The Soul and the Body
21. Modes of Consciousness
22. Ethical Discipline
23. The Means of Liberation (Moksa)
24. the Stages in the Evolution of the Soul
25. The Ethical Standard
26. The Jaina refutation of Theism
27. Critical Estimate



1. Introduction
2. The Four Noble Truths
3. Impermanence (Anityavada)
4. Causality : Dependent Origination (Pratityasamutpada)
5. The Wheel of Existence (Bhavacakra)
6. The Doctrine of No-Self (Anatmavada, Nairatmyavada)
7. Karma
8. Transmigration
9. The Dhamma or the Norm
10. Atheism
11. Non-materialism
12. Anti-metaphysical Attitude
13. Rationalism
14. Psychology
15. Ethics
16. Nirvana
17. Buddhism and the Upanisads
18. Buddhism and the Samkhya
19. Buddhism and the Yoga
20. Buddhism and Jainism
21. Buddhism and Materialism, Fatalism and Scepticism
22. Religion



1. Introduction
2. The Sarvastivadin, the Vaibhasika and the Sautrantika Realism
3. The Mahayanasraddhotpada-sastra: The Philosophy of Tathata
4. The Idealism of Lankavatarasutra
5. The Ygoacara Vijnanavada
6. The Sunyavada of Prajnaparamitasutra
7. The Madhyamika Sunyavada
8. The Doctrine of Momentariness
9. The Buddhist Epistemology and Logic



1. The Philosophy of the Rg-Veda: Polytheism, Henotheism, Monotheism, and Monism
2. Religion and ethics of the Rg-Veda
3. The Spiritualistic Monism of the Upanisads: Brahman
4. The Atman and the Individual Self
5. Intuition (Vidya) and Intellect (Avidya): Bondage and Liberation
6. Cosmology
7. Ethics
8. Gaudapada's Pure Monism or Absolute Idealism
9. The Philosophy of the Yogavasistha



1. Introduction
2. Samkara's Criticism of the Vaisesika Pluralism and Atomism
3. Samkara's Criticism of the Samkhya doctrine of Prakrit as the Material Cause of the World
4. Samkara's Criticism of the doctrine of God as the Efficient Cause of the World
5. Samkara's Criticism of the Bhagavata doctrine of God as the Efficient Cause and the Material Cause of the World
6. Samkara's Criticism of the Jaina doctrine
7. Samkara's Criticism of the Buddhist Realism
8. Samkara's Criticism of the Buddhist Subjective Idealism or Vijnanavada
9. The Atman
10. The Jiva
11. The Saksin
12. Brahmna
13. Indeterminate Brahman and Determinate Brahmna
14. Isvara
15. Brahman and Isvara
16. Isvara and Jiva
17. The Proofs for the existence of Isvara
18. The Material Cause and the Efficient Cause of the World
19. Brahman and the Jiva
20. Maya: Avidya
21. The World-Appearance (Prapanca)
22. Space, Time, and Causality
23. Creation
24. Higher Knowledge (Para Vidya) and Lower Knowledge (Apara Vidya)
25. Scriptural Authority (Sruti), Reason (Tarka), and Intuition (Anubhava)
26. Truth
27. The Pramanas
28. Bondage
29. Karma
30. Future Life
31. Moksa
32. The Means to Liberation: Morality and Knowledge
33. Ethical Thought: Dharma, Adharma, Niyoga, Springs of Action, and Freedom of the Will
34. Religion
35. Criticism of Samkara.



1. The Philosophy of the Bhagavadgita
2. The Philosophy of the Bhagavata
3. The Philosophy of the Pancaratra



1. Introduction
2. Bhaskara's Bhedabhedavada
3. Yadava-prakasa's Bhedabhedavada
4. The Sources of Knowledge
5. Brahman : God
6. The Jiva: Self and Consciousness
7. Matter
8. Causality: Satkaryavada
9. Creation
10. Refutation of Samkara's doctrine of Avidya
11. Reality of the World



1. Introduction
2. Epistemology
3. Visesa
4. God
5. Prakrti
6. The World
7. Reality of Difference
8. Madhva and Ramanuja
9. The Jiva
10. The Categories



1. Introduction
2. Brahman
3. The Jiva
4. Nimbarka and Bhaskara
5. Nimbarka and Ramanuja



1. Introduction
2. Epistemology
3. Brahman
4. Reality of the World
5. The Jiva



1. Caitanya's Theism
2. Jiva Goswami's Philosophy
3. Baladeva Vidyabhusana's Philosophy



1. The Pasupata Philosophy
2. The Saiva Siddhanta
3. The Pratyabhijna Philosophy
4. Srikantha's Saiva Vedanta
5. Saktaism





-Brahman is proved by Vedas alone
-The Nature of Brahman : Qualified God : Cause and Effect
-Brahman is the Material Cause of the World
-The Doctrine of Brahman's Modification into the World
-The formless Brahman should be worshipped
-The Nature of Brahman to be worshipped
-The Individual Self
-Bhaskara's criticism of the Buddhist's view of the World
-The Individual Self and Brahman
-Bhaskara's criticism of Samkara's views of Individual Self and Nescience
-The Individual Self's conditional difference and essential non-difference from Brahman
-Satkaryavada : Reality of the World
-Refutation of Samkara's doctrine of Falsity of the World-Appearance
-Works and Knowledge combined are the Means to Liberation



-Arguments for the existence of the Lord
-Criticism of the Samkhya Atheism
-Siva and Sakti
-Categories: Sivatattva
-Kancuka : Kala, Vidya, Raga, Kala, and Niyati
-Buddhi, Ahamkara, Manas, Sense-organs, tanmatras, and elements
-Individual Self: Kinds of Souls
-States of an Individual Self
-Descent of Divine Power
-An Individual Soul becomes the Absolute
-World and Siva-Sakti
-Enjoyer, Enjoyment and Enjoyed
-Knower, Knowledge and Known
-Agent and Object of Action
-Signifier and Signified
-All Relations presuppose the Supreme Knower
-Critique of other Systems
-Objections refuted
-Spiritual Culture: Works
-Nescience and True Knowledge
-Bondage and Liberation
-Criticism of other views of Liberation
-Somananda: All is Siva
-Utpaladeva : Abhasavada
-Pratyabhijna School of Saivism and Samkara's Advaitavada
-Pratyabhijna Saivism and Dualisitc Saivism
-Spanda Sastra
-Pratyabhijna Saiva Yoga: Kundaliniyoga
-Pratyabhijna Saivism and Sakta Monism



-Ontology : Cause : God
-God and Effects
-Spiritual discipline
-Liberation and its Means
-Five Kinds



-Siva : God (Pati)
-Sakti (Divine Power)
-God's Knowledge and Action
-Proof for God's Existence
-The Principles (tattva) : Pure Principles, Mixed Principles and Impure Principles
-Individual Souls (pasu)
-Bonds (pasa)
-Bondage, Liberation, and Yoga



-The Nature of Brahman
-God's Grace
-God's baby
-The Abode of Siva
-God is the material Cause and Efficient Cause of the World
-Brahman and the World
-Individual Soul
-Bondage and Liberation
-The State of the Freed Soul
-The reality of the world.



Vira Saivism
-Sripati Pnadita's Philosophyof Visistadvaita
-The Nature of Brahman
-Criticism of Advaitavada : Attributeless Brahman
-Criticism of Isvara as an Appearance (Samkara)
-Criticism of Samkarite concepts of Jiva
-Criticism of the Pasupata view
-The World is real
-Criticism of Samkarites concept of Isvara
-Refutation of Carvaka Materialism and Mimamsaka atheism
-God and Individual Self
-The World is real
-Criticism of Samkarites concept of Isvara
-Refutation of Carvaka Materialism and Mimamsaka Atheism
-An Individual Soul
-Bondage and Liberation



-Brahman : Essential and Accidental Characteristics
-Is Brahman knowable?
-The Cause of the World appearance
-Criticism of Brahman's Modification into the World (BHASKARA)
-Criticism of Samkhya, Nyaya
-Madhyamika and Carvaka views
-Atman is Self-manifest
-Atman and Ahamkara
-The Knower, the Means of knowledge and valid Knowledge
-The Agent and Enjoyer
-The Empirical Self (jiva)
-States of an Empirical Self
-Jiva : Theory of Limitation (Avaechedavada)
-Jiva : Theory of Reflection (Pratibimbavada)
-Ekajivavada : one Soul in one body
-Ekajivavada : one Soul in many bodies
-Doctrine of many jivas
-Doctrine of Drstisrsti
-Ubiquitons Souls have different experiences
-Brahman, Isvara and Jiva
-Turiya Brahman, Isvara, Hiranyagarbha, Vaisvanara, Prajna, Taijasa and Visva
-Advaita Vedanta Absolute Idealism and Yogacara Vijnanavada
-Criticism of the Doctrine of Difference and Non-difference
-Criticism of Bhartrprapanca's doctrine of Difference and Non-Difference
-Criticism of Bhaskara's Doctrine of Difference and Non-Difference
-Atman is self-proved and unprovable
-Atman is unproduced, eternal and immutable
-Atman is of the nature of Cognition or Consciousness
-Atman is of the nature of of Supreme Bliss and the object of supreme love
-Atman, cognition and object (Suresvara)
-Cognition is self-manifest
-Cognition and object
-The nature of Cognition
-Criticism of the Carvaka views of Atman
-Criticism of the Buddhist Vijnanavadin's view of Atman
-Criticism of the Nyaya-Vaisesika view of Atman
-Criticism of Kumarila's view of Atman
-Criticism of Prabhakara's view of Atman
-Criticism of the Samkhya view of Atman
-The Advaita Vedantin's view of Atman, mental mode and object
-Criticism of many individual souls.



Maya : Avidya
-The Abode and the Object of nescience
-Is Nescience one or many?
-Falsity of the World appearance
-Falsity of the false World appearance
-False empirical objects can produce practical actions
-World appearance and Atman
-Superimposition (Adhyasa)
-The Substratum of Dream phenomena
-Illusory silver is indefinable (anirvacaniya)
-Status of Object
-Degrees of Reality
-Criticism of Substance
-Criticism of Quality
-Criticism of Action
-Criticism of Generality : Genus (jati)
-Criticism of Particularity (visesa)
-Refutation of Inherence (samavaya)
-The Nature of Coessential Identity
-Refutation of Negation (abhava)
-Refutation of Difference
-Criticism of Nyaya Definition of Cause
-Criticism of Effect
-Criticism of Knower-known-relation
-Criticism of Cognition-object-relation
-Criticism of Being (bhava)
-Criticism of Manas
-Criticism of Time
-Criticism of Direction (dik)
-Criticism of Ether (akasa)
-Criticism of Conjunction
-Criticism of Disjunction
-Criticism of Number
-Criticism of Magnitude
-Criticism of Similarity
-Brahman, Isvara, maya and power
-Criticism of Nyaya-Vaisesika Atonism : Whole and Part
-Criticism of Yogacara Vijnanavada
-Criticism of Naturalism and allied Doctrines
-Criticism of the Buddhist Doctrine of Momentariness.



-Liberation as eternally realized
-Criticism of rival views of Liberation
-Embodied Liberation
-Disembodied Liberation
-Self-fulfilledness (krtakrtyata)
-Knowledge alone is the means to Release
-Criticism of Bhaskara's Doctrine of jnanakarmasamuccaya
-Knowledge and Action
-Contemplation, Meditation, Recollection and Knowledge
-Meditation, Imagination and Knowledge
-An Action and Brahman both are not denoted by a Vidhi
-Criticism of Prabhakara's view of Niyoga
-Healing, Reflection and Meditation
-Verbal Knowledge and Immediate Knowledge of Brahman
-Obstacles to Liberation
-Means to Liberation : Works
-The Internal Means to Liberation
-Pure and Impure Emotional Dispositions
-Knowledge of Reality, Destruction of Dispositions and Destruction of Mind
-Destructions of Mind
-What terminates the Nescience
-The Cessation of Nescience
-Sentient Pleasure and Bliss of Brahman
-The Bliss of Brahman is Attainable
-The Knower of Atman is devoid of Pravrtti and Nivrtti
-What destroys the Mental Mode with the Form of Brahman
-The State of Release
-Brahman and Pramana
-Criticism of Sabdadvaita



Valid Knowledge (Prama)
-Intrinsic Validity and Extrinsic Invalidity of Knowledge
-The Jaina Criticism of Intrinsic Validity of Knowledge
-Necessity of Issuance of a Mental Mode
-Relative Superiority of Perception and Scriptural Testimony
-Pramanas do not contradict the Reality of one Atman
-There is no Conflict between Pramanas
-Akhandarthata or Samanadhikaranya
-The Pramanas
-Sruti (Intuition) and Reason
-Tests of Truth
-Advaita Vedanta Scepticism : Criticism of Valid Knowledge
-Criticism of Pramana
-Criticism of Perception
-Criticism of Determinate and indeterminate Perception
-Criticism of Presumption (arthapatti)
-Criticism of Nonapprehension (anupalabdhi)
-Criticism of Hypothetical Reasoning (tarka)
-Criticism of Recollection
-Criticism of Recognition
-Criticism of Illusion
-Criticism of Doubt
-Criticism of World-Form (sphota)
-Criticism of Yogipratyaksa
-Criticism of Dream
-Criticism of Faulty Reasons.



-Pratyabhijna Saivism
-Pasupata Saivism
-Saiva Siddhanta
-Srikantha and Sripati Pandita
-Post-Samkara Advaita Vedanta





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