The Iconography of Architectural Plans by Fredrick W.Bunce

The Iconography of Architectural Plans

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The Iconography of Architectural Plans
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Over the rolling centuries, Buddhism and Hinduism, two of the world's oldest sustained faiths, came to evolve a complex, yet precisely defining, iconic language: not just for figural representations, but for the architectural plans of their temples and monuments as well - a language that allows interpretations of geometric proportions. Here is the first ever effort to brilliantly unravel the iconic idiom involved in the architectural plans of Buddhist and Hindu temples and monuments of India and the "Indianized" States of Southeast Asia.

With his indepth surveys of diverse 'Buddhic' and 'Hindic' temples in India, Sri Lanka, Java (Indonesia), Kambuja, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, and even Malayasia, the author shows how the basic element in their architecture: the PLAN - conceived within a cosmological framework - was fraught with iconographic import and input, necessitating the guidance of authoritative compendia, like the Manasara and the Mayamata, the arcane knowledge of the sthapati (priest-architect), and many other complex procedures which all were steeped in symbolism. In analyzing the architectural plans of these temples, Professor Bunce also highlights the various related iconographic considerations, like orientation, basic geometric forms, construction methods, rules and ratios, the non-congregational necessity, the high place as a consideration as well as the cave - besides a number of viable "influences" which exert various amounts of control, e.g., textual, philosophic/theologic, numerological, astrological/astronomical, 'regionality' and, most importantly, the Mandala.

Generously supported by visual material comprising as many as 400 figures and line-drawings, Professor Bunce's book is veritably a monumental, off-beat exercise of enormous interest to iconographers as well as the historians/specialists of South and Southeast Asian temple architecture.

About the Author:

Fredrick W. Bunce, a Ph.D. (Comparative Arts) from the Ohio University Athens, Ohio, USA, is a cultural historian and international repute. Now Professor Emeritus of Art, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana, he has lectured at learned forums and published on a variety of art-related themes. And has held many a solo exhibition at different art galleries, art museums and universities; besides his participation in the artist's guild/faculty/other ventures of the kind.

A scholar with varied intellectual / research concerns - notwithstanding his specializations in iconography, particularly Oriental and Buddhist Arts, Professor Bunce has been legitimately honoured with certain notable awards / commendations, and is listed in Who's Who in American Art and also the International Biographical Dictinary: 1980-present. Among his published books are: Encyclopaedia of Buddhist Deities (2 Vols); Encyclopaedia of Hindu Deities (3 vols.); Dictionary of Buddhist and Hindu Iconography; and Yantra of Deities and their Numerological Foundations, all published by D. K. Printworld.

Preface v
List of Paltes xvii
List of Figures xxi
Abbreviations xxvii
Introduction - Architectural Iconography 1
    The Basics of Form 5
    Philosophic and Theological Foundations 15
    Numerology 19
    Astrology / Astronomy 30
    Additional Iconic Concerns 31
    The Mandala 35
        Magic Squares Mandalas 35
        Vastu-purusha Mandala 40
        Manduka Mandala 42
        Paramasayika Mandala 44
        Manduka Mandala, Circular 46
        Vajrayana Mandala 48
        Stupa, Symbolism and Numerology 52
        Gyantse Kumbum, Gyantse, Tibet 56
        Garbh-Griha Plan 58
        Ancillary Shrine Plan 60
        Temple Plan 62

India and Sri Lanka 67
    Stupa I, Sanchi, India 70
    Thuparama Dagoba, Sri Lanka 72
    Ruvanveli Dagoba, Sri Lanka 76
    Chaitya Hall, Karli, India 78
    Buddhist Cave-Monastery #2, Ajanta, India 82
    Ladh Khan, Aihole, India 86
    Durga Temple, Aihole, India 90
    Shiva Temple, Indor, India 94
    Subrahmanya Temple, Manjeri, India 98
    Kilatali Shiva Temple, Thiruvanchikula, India 102
    Vatadage, Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka 104
    Tivanka Pilimage (Lankatilaka), Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka 110
    Brahmeshvar Temple, Bhuvaneshvar, India 114
    Keshva Temple, Somnathpur, India 118
    Garden Pavilion, Kotilal Fort, Delhi, India 124

Java (Indonesia) 129
    Borobudur, Java 132
    Chandi Lumbung, Prambananm, Java 140
    Chandi Sewu, Prambananm, Java 144
    Loro Jonggrang, Prambananm, Java 150
    Chandi Sari, Prambananm, Java 156
    Chandi Djago, Malang, Java 160
    Chandi Panataran Sanctuary, Kediri, Java 164

Khmer (Kambuja) 169
    Preach Ko, Roluos 172
    Bakong, Roluos 176
    Bakheng (Mount Ensemble), Angkor 180
    Ta Keo Shrine, Angkor 186
    Phimai Prasat, Thailand 192
    Banteay Samre Temple, Angkor 196
    Baphuon, Angkor 200
    Angkor Wat, Angkor 206
    Bayon, Angkor Thom, Angkor 214

Pagan (Myanmar [Burma]) 223
    Nat-Hlaung-Kyaung, Pagan 226
    Nan-Hpaya, Pagan 230
    Myin-Pya-Gu, Pagan 234
    Shwe-Zigon Pagoda, Pagan 238
    Naga-Yon, Pagan 242
    Ananda Temple, Pagan 246
    That-Byin-Ngu, Pagan 252
    Dhamma-Yan-Gyi, Pagan 258
    Gawdaw-Palin, Pagan 262
    Myinkaba Kubyauk-Nge, Pagan 266
    Bogyoke-Mi Kubyauk, Pagan 270
    Dhamma-Yazila, Pagan 274
    Mingala-zeidi, Pagan 278
    Pentagonal Temple (Pancha-Buddhas) (Near Mingalazedi Stupa), Pagan 282
    Paya-Thon-Zu, Pagan 284

Lanna Tai, Sukhothai, Ayutthaya & Rattanakosin (Thailand) 289
    Chedi Wat Kukut, Lamphun 292
    Chedi Wat Chang Lom, Si Satchanalai 296
    Wat Phra Chao Phanan Choeng, Ayutthaya 300
    Wat Mahathat, Sukhothai 304
    Wat Phra Si Rattana Mahathat, Ayutthaya 310
    Wat Phra Ram, Ayutthaya 314
    Wat Ratchaburana, Ayutthaya 318
    Wat Chedi Chet Yot, Chiang Mai 322
    Wat Phra Si Sanphet, Ayutthaya 326
    Chedi Wat Phukhao Thong, Ayutthaya 330
    Wat Chai Watthanaram, Ayutthaya 334
    Wat Phra Chetuphon, Bangkok 338
    Lohaprasad, Wat Theptidaram, Bangkok 344

Champa (Viet Nam) 351
    Pho-hai Shrine, Phan-thiet 352
    Khuong-my Shrine, n. Hoi-an 354
    Dong-Duong Monastery 356

Postscriptus: Malaysia 361
    Masjid Terengkera, Malacca 362
    Masjid Kampung Laut, Kelantan 366
    Masjid Kampung Kling, Malacca 368
    Masjid Kampung Hulu, Malacca 370



Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D



Addendum (That Luang, Vientiane, Lao)


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